Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30101
Pyrethroid Resistance and Its Mechanism in Field Populations of the Sand Termite, Psammotermes hypostoma Desneux

Authors: Mai. M. Toughan, Ahmed A. A. Sallam, Ashraf O. Abd El-Latif

Abstract:

Termites are eusocial insects that are found on all continents except Antarctica. Termites have serious destructive impact, damaging local huts and crops of poor subsistence. The annual cost of termite damage and its control is determined in the billions globally. In Egypt, most of these damages are due to the subterranean termite species especially the sand termite, P. hypostoma. Pyrethroids became the primary weapon for subterranean termite control, after the use of chlorpyrifos as a soil termiticide was banned. Despite the important role of pyrethroids in termite control, its extensive use in pest control led to the eventual rise of insecticide resistance which may make many of the pyrethroids ineffective. The ability to diagnose the precise mechanism of pyrethroid resistance in any insect species would be the key component of its management at specified location for a specific population. In the present study, detailed toxicological and biochemical studies was conducted on the mechanism of pyrethroid resistance in P. hypostoma. The susceptibility of field populations of P. hypostoma against deltamethrin, α-cypermethrin and ƛ-cyhalothrin was evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the workers of P. hypostoma have developed high resistance level against the tested pyrethroids. Studies carried out through estimation of detoxification enzyme activity indicated that enhanced esterase and cytochrome P450 activities were probably important mechanisms for pyrethroid resistance in field populations. Elevated esterase activity and also additional esterase isozyme were observed in the pyrethroid-resistant populations compared to the susceptible populations. Strong positive correlation between cytochrome P450 activity and pyrethroid resistance was also reported. |Deltamethrin could be recommended as a resistance-breaking pyrethroid that is active against resistant populations of P. hypostoma.

Keywords: Psammotermes hypostoma, pyrethroid resistance, esterase, cytochrome P450.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132551

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 498

References:


[1] M. J. Pearce, Termites biology and pest management. CAB, International Wallingford, UK. 1997.
[2] A. R. El-Bassiouny, and R. M. Abd El-Rahman. Susceptibility of Egyptian subterranean termite to some entomopathogenic nematodes. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 2011, 89: 121-135.
[3] A. H. Kaschef, and L. S. El-Sherif. Distribution of four termite species in the A. R. Egypt. Insectes Sociaux, Paris, 1971, XVIII (4): 227-232. B. Smith, “An approach to graphs of linear forms (Unpublished work style),” unpublished.
[4] M. A. I. Ahmed, E. A Eraky, M. F. Mohamed, A. S. Soliman, Potential toxicity assessment of novel selected pesticides against sand termite, Psammotermes hypostoma Desneux workers (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) under field conditions in Egypt, Journal of Plant Protection Research, 2015, 55(2): 193-197.
[5] D. J. Finney, Probit Analysis. (3rd Edition ed.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1971.
[6] O. H. Lowry, N. J. Rosebrough, A. L. Farr, and R. J. Randall, Protein Measurement with the Folin Phenol Reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1951, 193:265-275.
[7] T. Omura and R. Sato, The carbon mono-oxide binding pigment of liver microsomes. II. Soluilisation, Purification and properties. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1964, 239: 2379-2385.
[8] J. Tan, and A. R. McCaferry, Efficacy of various pyrethroid structures against a highly metabolically resistant isogenic strain of Heilcoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from China. Pest Management Science, 2007, 63:960-968.
[9] D. K. S. Goh, D. D. Anspaugh, N. Motoyama, G. C. Rock and R. M. R, Isolation and characterization of an insecticide-resistance associated esterase in the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 1995, 51: 192-204.
[10] A. O. Abd El-Latif, B. Subrahmanyam, Pyrethroid synergists suppress esterase-mediated resistance in Indian strains of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 2010, 97 (3): 279-288.
[11] A. O. Abd El-Latif, B. Subrahmanyam, Pyrethroid resistance and esterase activity in three strains of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 2010, 96 (3): 155-159.
[12] K. A. Usmani, K. A. and C. O. Knowles, DEF Sensitive Esterases in Homogenates of Larval and Adult Helicoverpa zea, Spodoptera frugiperda, and Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 2001, 94(4): 884-891.
[13] R. V. Gunning, G. D. Moores and A. L. Devonshire, Esterase inhibitors synergize the toxicity of pyrethroids in Australian Heilcoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiolog,1999, 63:50-62.
[14] R. W. Davis, S. T. Kamble and S.K. Prabhakaran, Characterization of general esterases in workers of the eastern subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 1995, 88(3): 574-578.
[15] S. E. Clarck, C. H. Walker and A. R. McCaffery, A comparison of in vitro metabolism of cis-cypermethrin in a resistant and susceptible strain of Heliothis virescens. In Proc. Brighton Crop Protect. Conference: Pests and Diseases, 1990, PP. 1201-1206. Farnham, UK: The British Crop Protection council.
[16] M. Zhang and J. G. Scott. Cytochrome b5 is essential for cytochrome P450 6D1-mediated cypermethrin resistance in LPR house flies. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 1996, 55: 150-156.
[17] N. Liu, and J. G. Scott. Increased transcription of CYP6D1 causes cytochrome P450-mediated resistance in house fly. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology1998, 28: 531-535.
[18] S. Kasai, I. S. Weerashinghe and T. Shono, P450 monooxygenases are an important mechanism of permethrin resistance in Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae. Archive of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 1998, 37: 47-56.
[19] A. O. Abd El-Latif, K. R. Kranthi, S. Kranthi, A. Sarwar and B. Subrahmanyam, Overexpression of cytochrome P450 CYP6B7 mediated pyrethroid resistance in Indian strains of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). Journal of Plant Protection Research, 2014, 54(30): 10-15.