Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30840
Estimation of Subgrade Resilient Modulus from Soil Index Properties

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Mohamed Awad


Determination of Resilient Modulus (MR) is quite important for characterizing materials in pavement design and evaluation. The main focus of this study is to develop a correlation that predict the resilient modulus of subgrade soils from simple and easy measured soil index properties. To achieve this objective, three subgrade soils representing typical Khartoum soils were selected and tested in the laboratory for measuring resilient modulus. Other basic laboratory tests were conducted on the soils to determine their physical properties. Several soil samples were prepared and compacted at different moisture contents and dry densities and then tested using resilient modulus testing machine. Based on experimental results, linear relationship of MR with the consistency factor ‘Fc’ which is a combination of dry density, void ratio and consistency index had been developed. The results revealed that very good linear relationship found between the MR and the consistency factor with a coefficient of linearity (R2) more than 0.9. The consistency factor could be used for the prediction of the MR of compacted subgrade soils with precise and reliable results.

Keywords: Properties, resilient modulus, Consistency factor, subgrade soil

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1410


[1] American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. AASHTO Guide for Design of Pavement Structures, Washington, D.C, 1993.
[2] L. N. Mohammad, A. J. Puppala, and P. Alavilli. Investigation of the Use of Resilient Modulus for Louisiana Soils in the Design of Pavements, Final Report FHWA/LA-94/283, Louisiana Transportation Research Center, Baton Rouge, 1994.
[3] Y. A. Huang. Pavement Analysis and Design, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1993.
[4] H. Seed, C. Chan, and C. Lee, “Resilient Modulus of Subgrade Soils and Their Relation to Fatigue Failures in Asphalt Pavements,” Proceedings, International Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 611-636, 1962.
[5] AASHTO. Standard Specifications for Transportation Materials and Methods of Sampling and Testing, Part II Methods of Sampling and Testing. 25th Edition. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, 2005.
[6] D. Li, and T. S. Ernest, “Resilient Modulus for Fine-Grained Subgrade Soils,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 120, No. 6, June, 1994.
[7] W. Lee, N. C. Bohra, A. G. Altschaeffi, and T. D. White, “Resilient Modulus of Cohesive Soils,” J. Geotech. and Geoenviro. Engrg., ASCE, 123(2), pp. 131 – 136, 1997.
[8] M. R. Thompson and Q. L. Robnett, “Resilient Properties of Subgrade Soils,” Transportation Engineering Journal, ASCE, 105(TE1), pp. 71-89, 1979.
[9] G. Rada and M. W. Witczak, “Comprehensive Evaluation of Laboratory Resilient Moduli Results for Granular Material,” Transportation Research Record No. 810, Transportation Research Board, pp. 23-33, 1981.
[10] R. Pezo and W. R. Hudson, “Prediction Models of Resilient Modulus for Nongranular Materials,” Geotechnical Testing Journal, GTJODJ, Vol. 17 No. 3, 1994, pp. 349 - 355.
[11] W. S. Smith and K. Nair.Development of Procedure for Characterization of Untreated Granular Base Course and Asphalt Treated Course Materials, FHWA, Final Report, FHWA-A-RD-74-61, Washington D.C, 1973.
[12] A. J. Allen. Development of A Correlation Between Physical and Fundamental Properties of Louisiana Soils, Master’s Thesis, Dept. of Civil Eng., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 1996.
[13] E. C. Drumm, J. S. Reeves, M. R. Madgett and W. D. Trolinger, “Subgrade Resilient Modulus Correction for Saturation Effects,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geo-environmental Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 7, 1997.
[14] M. R. Thompson, “Factors Affecting the Resilient Moduli of Soils and Granular Materials,” Workshop on Resilient Modulus Testing, Oregon State University, Corvallis, 1989.
[15] R. D. Barksdale, and S. Y. Itani, “Influence of Aggregate Shape on Base Behavior,” Transportation Research Record 1227, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., pp. 173-182, 1989.
[16] A. Dawson, M. Mundy and M. Huhtala, “European research into granular material for pavement bases and subbases,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (1721), 91–99, 2000.
[17] T. S. Butalia, J. Huang, D. G. Kim and F. Croft, “Effect of Moisture Content and Pore Water Pressure Build on Resilient Modulus of Cohesive Soils,” Resilient Modulus Testing for Pavement Components, 2003, ASTM STP 1437.
[18] M. S. Jin, W. Lee and W. D. Kovacs, “Seasonal Variation of Resilient Modulus of Subgrade soils,” J. Trans. Engrg., ASCE, 120(4), 1994, pp. 603 – 615.
[19] A. Maher, T. Bennert, and N. Gucunski.Resilient Modulus Properties of New Jersey Subgrade Soils, Final Report, The State of New Jersey Department of Transportation, September 2000.
[20] F. Lekarp, U. Isacsson and A. R. Dawson, “State of the Art. I: Resilient Response of Unbound Aggregates” Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 126, No.1, pp. 66-75, 2000.
[21] V, C. Janoo, and J. J. Bayer, “The effect of Aggregate Angularity on Base Course Performance,” U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, ERDC/CRREL TR-01-14, 2001.
[22] P. Ruttanaporamakul, “Resilient Moduli Properties Of Compacted Unsaturated Subgrade Materials,” M.Sc. thesis, the University of Texas at Arlington, July 2012.
[23] W. Heukelom and A. J. G. Klomp, “Dynamic Testing as a Means of Controlling Pavement during and after Construction,” Proceedings of the 1st international Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavement, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 1962.
[24] J. L. Green and J. W. Hall. Non-destructive vibratory testing of airport pavement: Experimental tests results and development of evaluation methodology and procedure, FAA-RD-73-205, Federal Aviation Administration, Washington D.C., 1975.
[25] NCHRP 1-37A Design Guide. Mechanistic-Empirical Design of New & Rehabilitated Pavement Structures, Transportation and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL), 2002.
[26] W. D. L. Paterson and J. H. Maree, “An interim mechanistic procedure for the structural design pavements,” National Institute for Transport and Road Research, Pretoria, South Africa, 1978.
[27] A. Hassan. The Effect of Material Parameters on Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Results for Fine-grained Soils and Granular Materials, Ph.D. Dissertation, Oklahama State University, Stillwater, 1996.
[28] The Asphalt Institute. Research and Development of the Asphalt Institute’s Thickness Design Manual, Ninth Edition, Research Report No. 82-2, 1982, pp. 60.
[29] S. T. Yeh and C. K. Su, “Resilient Properties of Colorado Soils,” Colorado Department of Highways, Report No. CDOH-DH-SM-89-9, 1989.
[30] K. P. George. Prediction of Resilient Modulus from Soil Index Properties, Final Report, Conducted by the Department of Civil Engineering at University of Mississippi, Mississippi, November 2004.
[31] M. J. Farrar and J. P. Turner, “Resilient Modulus of Wyoming Subgrade Soils,” Mountain Plains Consortium Report No 91-1, The University Of Wyoming, Luramie, Wyoming, 1991.
[32] BSI. Methods of Test for Soils for Civil Engineering Purposes, Part 2 (BS 1377-2). British Standards Institution, London, 1990.