An Immersive Serious Game for Firefighting and Evacuation Training in Healthcare Facilities
In healthcare facilities, training the staff for firefighting and evacuation in real buildings is very challenging due to the presence of a vulnerable population in such an environment. In a standard environment, traditional approaches, such as fire drills, are often used to train the occupants and provide them with information about fire safety procedures. However, those traditional approaches may be inappropriate for a vulnerable population and can be inefficient from an educational viewpoint as it is impossible to expose the occupants to scenarios similar to a real emergency. Immersive serious games could be used as an alternative to traditional approaches to overcome their limitations. Serious games are already being used in different safety domains such as fires, earthquakes and terror attacks for several building types (e.g., office buildings, train stations, tunnels, etc.). In this study, we developed an immersive serious game to improve the fire safety skills of staff in healthcare facilities. An accurate representation of the healthcare environment was built in Unity3D by including visual and audio stimuli inspired from those employed in commercial action games. The serious game is organised in three levels. In each of them, the trainee is presented with a specific fire emergency and s/he can perform protective actions (e.g., firefighting, helping non-ambulant occupants, etc.) or s/he can ignore the opportunity for action and continue the evacuation. In this paper, we describe all the steps required to develop such a prototype, as well as the key questions that need to be answered, to develop a serious game for firefighting and evacuation in healthcare facilities.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132439Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 813
 H. Mitsuhara, T. Inoue, K. Yamaguchi, Y. Takechi, M. Morimoto, K. Iwaka, Y. Kozuki and M. Shishibori, “Web-based system for designing game-based evacuation drills”, Procedia Computer Science, vol. 72, pp. 277-284, 2015.
 A. Hunt, “Simulating hospital evacuation”. PhD Dissertation, 2016.
 J. F. Silva, J. E. Almeida, R. J. F. Rossetti and A.L. Coello, “A Serious Game for Evacuation Training”, in: IEEE 2nd International Conference on Serious Games and Applications for Health (SeGAH2013), Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal, 2013.
 C. L. Foronda, K. Shubeck, S. M. Swoboda; K. W. Hudson, C. Budhathoki, N. Sullivan and C. Hu, “Impact of Virtual Simulation to Teach Concepts of Disaster Triage”, Clinical Simulation in Nursing, vol. 12, pp. 137-144, 2016.
 R. Lovreglio, V. Gonzalez, R. Amor, M. Spearpoint, J. Thomas, M. Trotter and R. Sacks, “The Need for Enhancing Earthquake Evacuee Safety by using Virtual Reality Serious Games”, in: Lean & Computing in Construction Congress 2017, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 2017.
 U. Rüppel and K. Schatz, “Designing a BIM-based serious game for fire safety evacuation simulations”, Advanced Engineering Informatics, vol. 25, pp. 600-611, 2011.
 S. P. Smith and D. Trenholme, “Rapid prototyping a virtual fire drill environment using computer game Technology”, Fire Safety Journal, vol. 44 (4), pp. 559-569, 2009.
 C. Passos, S. Nazir, A. C. A. Mol and P. V. R. Carvalho, “Collaborative Virtual Environment for Training Teams in Emergency Situations”, Chemical Engineering Transactions, vol. 53, pp. 217-222, 2016, DOI: 10.3303/CET1653037
 S. M. V. Gwynne, K. E. Boyce, E. D. Kuligowski, D. Nilsson, A. Robbins, R. Lovreglio, A. Roy-Poirier and J. R. Thomas, “Enhancing Egress Drills: Preparation and Assessment of Evacuee Performance”, Fire and Materials, 2017, DOI: 10.1002/fam.2448
 S. M. V. Gwynne, K. E. Boyce, E. D. Kuligowski, D. Nilsson, A. Robbins and R. Lovreglio, “Pros and Cons of Egress Drills”, Interflam 2016, Nr Windsor, UK, 4-6 July 2016
 A. Rahouti, S. Datoussaïd and R. Lovreglio, “A sensitivity analysis of a hospital evacuation in case of fire: The impact of the percentage of people with reduced mobility and the staff to occupant’s ratio", in Proceedings of Fire and Evacuation Modelling Conference (FEMTC2016), Torremolinos, Spain, 2016
 L. Chittaro, “Designing Serious Games for Safety Education: "Learn to Brace" vs. Traditional Pictorials for Aircraft Passengers”, IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, vol. 22 (5), pp. 1527-1539, 2016.
 L. Chittaro and R. Ranon, “Serious games for training occupants of a building in personal fire safety skills”, Proceedings of VS-GAMES'09: IEEE First International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, pp. 76-83, 2009.
 M. Kinateder, M. Müller, M. Jost, A. Mühlberger and P. Pauli, “Social influence in a virtual tunnel fire – influence of conflicting information on evacuation behavior”, Applied Ergonomics, vol. 45, pp. 1649-1659, 2014.
 M. Cha, S. Han, J. Lee and B. Choi, “A virtual reality based fire training simulator integrated with fire dynamics data”, Fire Safety Journal, vol. 50, pp. 12-24, 2012.
 L. Chittaro and R. Sioni, “Serious games for emergency preparedness: Evaluation of an interactive vs. A non-interactive simulation of a terror attack”, Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 50, pp. 508-519, 2015.
 Ministry of Health, “Fire Safety in Health Care Facilities”, PD2010¬_024, 2010, reviewed in April 2015.
 Grand rapids fire department, “Fire Safety for Nursing Home Personnel”, http://grcity.us/fire-department/Documents/4930_FireSafety_NursingHomePersonnel.pdf accessed last 03-07-2017.
 S. M. V. Gwynne, L.M. Hulse and M.J. Kinsey, “Guidance for model developer on representing human behaviour in egress models”, Fire Technology, vol.52 (3), pp. 775-800, 2016
 E. D Kuligowski, S. M. V. Gwynne, M. J. Kinsey and L. M. Hulse, “Guidance for model user on representing human behaviour in egress models”, Fire Technology, vol. 53 (2), pp. 649-672, 2016
 A. Rahouti, R. Lovreglio, C. Dias and S. Datoussaïd, “Simulating assisted evacuation using Unity3D", in Proceedings of Traffic and Granular Flow Conference 2017 (TGF2017), Washington, DC, USA, 2017
 K. McGrattan, S. Hostikka, R. McDermott, J. Floyd, C. Weinschenk et K. Overholt, Fire Dynamics Simulator (Version 6.5.3) Technical Reference Guide, NIST, Special publication 1018-1 6th Edition, Washington, USA, 2017.