Forest Risk and Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study from East Bokaro Coal Mining Area in India
The expansion of large scale coal mining into forest areas is a potential hazard for the local biodiversity and wildlife. The objective of this study is to provide a picture of the threat that coal mining poses to the forests of the East Bokaro landscape. The vulnerable forest areas at risk have been assessed and the priority areas for conservation have been presented. The forested areas at risk in the current scenario have been assessed and compared with the past conditions using classification and buffer based overlay approach. Forest vulnerability has been assessed using an analytical framework based on systematic indicators and composite vulnerability index values. The results indicate that more than 4 km2 of forests have been lost from 1973 to 2016. Large patches of forests have been diverted for coal mining projects. Forests in the northern part of the coal field within 1-3 km radius around the coal mines are at immediate risk. The original contiguous forests have been converted into fragmented and degraded forest patches. Most of the collieries are located within or very close to the forests thus threatening the biodiversity and hydrology of the surrounding regions. Based on the vulnerability values estimated, it was concluded that more than 90% of the forested grids in East Bokaro are highly vulnerable to mining. The forests in the sub-districts of Bermo and Chandrapura have been identified as the most vulnerable to coal mining activities. This case study would add to the capacity of the forest managers and mine managers to address the risk and vulnerability of forests at a small landscape level in order to achieve sustainable development.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132377Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 749
 Central Mine Planning and Design Institute (2016) Report on Land Use / Vegetation Cover Mapping of East Bokaro Coalfield based on Satellite Data for the Year 2015.http://www.centralcoalfields.in/sutbs/pdf/Report_EBCF_2015.pdf) (Accessed on 15-10-2016).
 Feng, Li., Xusheng, Liu, Dan, Zhao, Beibei, Wang, Jiasheng, Jin and Dan, Hu. Evaluating and modeling ecosystem service loss of coal mining: A case study of Mentougou district of Beijing, China. Ecological Complexity, 8(2): 139-143 (2011).
 Forest survey of India (FSI), 2013. State of Forest Report. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of Environment and Forests, DehraDun.
 FSI (2011) State of forest report 2011. Forest survey of India, Ministry of environment and forests, government of India, Dehradun. http://www.fsi.nic.in/cover_2011/chapter2.pdf. (Accessed on 24-11-2016).
 Garg, R. K. Impact of Coal Mining on Climate Change & Different Forest Types in India. http://www.teriuniversity.ac.in/mct/pdf/new/environment/IGNFA.pdf (Accessed 25-11-2016).
 Greenpeace report. How coal mining is trashing Tigerland. (2012) http://www.greenpeace.org/india/Global/india/report/How-Coal-mining-is-Trashing-Tigerland.pdf(Accessed on 35-11-2016).
 IPCC (2014) Summary for policymakers. In: Field CB, Barros VR, Dokken D. J., Mach K. J., Mastrandrea M. D., Bilir T. E., Chatterjee M., Ebi K. L., Estrada Y. O., Genova R. C., Girma B., Kissel E. S., Levy A. N., MacCracken S., Mastrandrea P. R., White L. L. (eds) Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 1 –32.
 Lindner M., Maroschek M., Netherer S. et al (2010) Climate change impacts, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability of European forest ecosystems. Forest Ecol Manag 259:698 –709.
 Metzger M. J., Rounsevell M. D. A., Acosts-Michlik L. et al. (2006) The vulnerability of ecosystem services to land use change. Agric Ecosyst Environ 114:69 –85.
 Murthy I. K., Tiwari R., Ravindranath N. H. (2011) Climate change and forests in India: adaptation opportunities and challenges. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 16:161 –175.
 Price D. L. (ed) (2008) Draft Michigan state forest management plan. Michigan department of natural resources, forest, mineral, and fire management division and wildlife division, Lansing. http://www.michigandnr.com/publications/pdfs/ForestsLandWater/ForestMgt/SFMPdraftApr2008.pdf. Accessed on 18 -11-2016.
 Ribot J. (2011) Vulnerability before adaption: towards transformative climate action. Glob Environ Chang 21: 1160 –1162.
 Sharma J., Chaturvedi R. K., Bala G. et al. (2013) Challenges in vulnerability assessment of forests under climate change. Carbon Manage 4(4):403 –411.
 Sharma J., Chaturvedi R. K., Bala G. et al. (2015) Assessing ‘inherent vulnerability’ of forests: a methodological approach and a case study from Western Ghats, India. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Chang 20:573 –590. doi:10.1007/s11027-013-9508-5.
 Thompson I., Mackey B., McNulty S. et al. (2009) Forest Resilience, Biodiversity, and Climate Change. A synthesis of the biodiversity/resilience/stability relationship in forest ecosystems. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Technical Series no. 43, pp67.
 Wang X. D., Zhong X. H., Liu S. Z. et al. (2008) Regional assessment of environmental vulnerability in Tibetan Plateau: development and application of a new method. J Arid Environ 72:1929 –1939.
 Wildlife Institute of India, 2015. Wildlife Protected Areas in Jharkhand. IT and RS & GIS cell. http://wiienvis.nic.in/WriteReadData/UserFiles/image/PAs_Map_Database/images/jharkhand1.jpg. (Accessed on 25-11-2016).