Analysis of Bio-Oil Produced by Pyrolysis of Coconut Shell
The utilization of biomass as a source of new and renewable energy is being carried out. One of the technologies to convert biomass as an energy source is pyrolysis which is converting biomass into more valuable products, such as bio-oil. Bio-oil is a liquid which is produced by steam condensation process from the pyrolysis of coconut shells. The composition of a coconut shell e.g. hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin will be oxidized to phenolic compounds as the main component of the bio-oil. The phenolic compounds in bio-oil are corrosive; they cause various difficulties in the combustion system because of a high viscosity, low calorific value, corrosiveness, and instability. Phenolic compounds are very valuable components which phenol has used as the main component for the manufacture of antiseptic, disinfectant (known as Lysol) and deodorizer. The experiments typically occurred at the atmospheric pressure in a pyrolysis reactor at temperatures ranging from 300 oC to 350 oC with a heating rate of 10 oC/min and a holding time of 1 hour at the pyrolysis temperature. The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to analyze the bio-oil components. The obtained bio-oil has the viscosity of 1.46 cP, the density of 1.50 g/cm3, the calorific value of 16.9 MJ/kg, and the molecular weight of 1996.64. By GC-MS, the analysis of bio-oil showed that it contained phenol (40.01%), ethyl ester (37.60%), 2-methoxy-phenol (7.02%), furfural (5.45%), formic acid (4.02%), 1-hydroxy-2-butanone (3.89%), and 3-methyl-1,2-cyclopentanedione (2.01%).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1132180Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1244
 E. Hambali, S. Mujdalipah, A.H. Tambunan, A.W. Pattiwiri, R. Hendroko, Teknologi Bioenergi. Agromedia Pustaka, Jakarta (2007).
 A. Haryanti, Norsamsi, P.S.F. Sholiha, and N.P. Putri, Studi Pemanfaatan Limbah Padat Kelapa Sawit, Konversi, pp.20-29, Vol.3(2) (2014).
 S. Ismadji, S., Kulit Durian sebagai Bahan Baku Pembuatan Bio-Oil: Sumber Energi Terbarukan, Prosiding Seminar Nasional Teknik Kimia Soebardjo Brotohardjono I, Prodi Teknik Kimia UPN Veteran Jawa Timur, pp. 1-4 (2012).
 I. Demiral, A. Eryazici, and S. Sensoz, Bio-oil Production from Pyrolysis of Corncob (Zea mays L), Biomass Bioenergy, Vo. 36, pp. 43-49 (2012).
 C. J. Ellens and R.C. Brown, Optimization of Free Fall Reactor for Production of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil, Biores. Technol., Vol. 103, pp. 374-380 (2012).
 M. Bertero, G. de la Puente, and U. Sedran, Fuels from Bio-oil: Bio-oil Production from Different Residual Sources, Characterization and Thermal Conditioning, Fuel, Vol. 95, pp. 263-271 (2012).
 E. Buttler, G. Devlin, D. Meier, and K. McDonnell, A Review of Recent Laboratory Research and Commercial Development in Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading, Renew. Sustain, Energy Rev. Vol. 15, pp. 4171-4186 (2011).
 M. Ozbay, E. Apaydin-Varol, B. Uzun, and A. Putun, Characterization of Bio-Oil Obtained from Fruit Pulp Pyrolysis, Energy, Vo. 33, pp. 1233-1240 (2008).
 J. Guo, R. Ruan, and Y. Zhang, Hydrotreating of Phenolic Compounds Separated from Bio-oil to Alcohols, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., Vol. 51, pp. 6599−6604 (2012).
 T. Hidayat and Qomaruddin, Analisa Pengaruh Temperatur Pirolisis Dan Bahan Biomassa Terhadap Kapasitas Hasil Pada Alat Pembuat Asap Cair, Prosiding SNST ke-6, Fakultas Teknik Universitas Wahid Hasyim Semarang (2015).
 L. Suyanti, Kinetika Reaksi Pirolisis Tir Batubara dengan Menggunakan Katalis, Tesis Program Pasca Sarjana, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta (2000).
 S.V. Mantilla, A.M. Manrique, and A. Gauthier-Maradei, Methodology for Extraction of Phenolic Compounds of Bio-oil from Agricultural Biomass Wastes, Waste Biomass Valor, Vol. 6, pp. 371–383 (2015).