Preparation of Sorbent Materials for the Removal of Hardness and Organic Pollutants from Water and Wastewater
Ecological pollution is of great concern for human health and the environment. Numerous organic and inorganic pollutants usually discharged into the water caused carcinogenic or toxic effect for human and different life form. In this respect, this work aims to treat water contaminated by organic and inorganic waste using sorbent based on polystyrene. Therefore, two different series of adsorbent material were prepared; the first one included the preparation of polymeric sorbent from the reaction of styrene acrylate ester and alkyl acrylate. The second series involved syntheses of composite ion exchange resins of waste polystyrene and amorphous carbon thin film (WPS/ACTF) by solvent evaporation using micro emulsion polymerization. The produced ACTF/WPS nanocomposite was sulfonated to produce cation exchange resins ACTF/WPSS nanocomposite. The sorbents of the first series were characterized using FTIR, 1H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography. The thermal properties of the cross-linked sorbents were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis, and the morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The removal of organic pollutant was determined through absorption tests in a various organic solvent. The chemical and crystalline structure of nanocomposite of second series has been proven by studies of FTIR spectrum, X-rays, thermal analysis, SEM and TEM analysis to study morphology of resins and ACTF that assembled with polystyrene chain. It is found that the composite resins ACTF/WPSS are thermally stable and show higher chemical stability than ion exchange WPSS resins. The composite resin was evaluated for calcium hardness removal. The result is evident that the ACTF/WPSS composite has more prominent inorganic pollutant removal than WPSS resin. So, we recommend the using of nanocomposite resin as new potential applications for water treatment process.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1131856Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 658
 K, B., S. R and K. N (2016). "Exploration of microporous bio-carbon scaffold for efficient utilization of sulfur in lithium-sulfur system." Electrochimica Acta 209: 171-182.
 Jouhara, H., V. Anastasov and I. Khamis (2009). "Potential of heat pipe technology in nuclear seawater desalination." Desalination 249(3): 1055-1061.
 Abbas, A. (2006). "Model predictive control of a reverse osmosis desalination unit." Desalination 194(1–3): 268-280.
 Fathy, M., T. A. Moghny, M. A. Mousa, A.-H. A.-A. El-Bellihi and A. E. Awadallah (2016). "Synthesis of Transparent Amorphous Carbon Thin Films from Cellulose Powder in Rice Straw." Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering: 1-9.
 Mestre, A. S., A. Nabiço, P. L. Figueiredo, M. L. Pinto, M. S. C. S. Santos and I. M. Fonseca (2016). "Enhanced clofibric acid removal by activated carbons: Water hardness as a key parameter." Chemical Engineering Journal 286: 538-548.
 Gao, H., Z. Song, W. Zhang, X. Yang, X. Wang and D. Wang "Synthesis of highly effective absorbents with waste quenching blast furnace slag to remove Methyl Orange from aqueous solution." Journal of Environmental Sciences.
 Mallakpour, S. and E. Khadem (2016). "Carbon nanotube–metal oxide nanocomposites: Fabrication, properties and applications." Chemical Engineering Journal 302: 344-367.
 Mondal, S., K. Aikat and G. Halder (2016). "Biosorptive uptake of ibuprofen by chemically modified Parthenium hysterophorus derived biochar: Equilibrium, kinetics, thermodynamics and modeling." Ecological Engineering 92: 158-172.
 Fathy, M., T. Abdel Moghny, M. A. Mousa, A.-H. A.-A. El-Bellihi and A. E. Awadallah (2016). "Absorption of calcium ions on oxidized graphene sheets and study its dynamic behavior by kinetic and isothermal models." Applied Nanoscience: 1-13.
 An, Z., H. Zhang, Q. Wen, Z. Chen and M. Du (2014). "Desalination combined with copper (II) removal in a novel microbial desalination cell." Desalination 346: 115-121.
 Ataollahi, N., K. Vezzù, G. Nawn, G. Pace, G. Cavinato, F. Girardi, P. Scardi, V. Di Noto and R. Di Maggio (2017). "A Polyketone-based Anion Exchange Membrane for Electrochemical Applications: Synthesis and Characterization." Electrochimica Acta 226: 148-157.
 Venugopal, K. and S. Dharmalingam (2014). "Evaluation of synthetic salt water desalination by using a functionalized polysulfone based bipolar membrane electrodialysis cell." Desalination 344: 189-197.
 Abdel-Azim Abdel-Azim, A., Abdul-Raheim, A. M., Atta Ayman, M., Brostow, W., &Datashvili, T. (2009) e-Polymers, 9:pp.1592.
 Masqué, N., Galia, M., Marcé, R., & Borrull, F. (1998) J. Chromatogr. A, 803: 147-155.
 Yan, W., L. Wang, C. Chen, D. Zhang, A.-J. Li, Z. Yao and L.-Y. Shi (2016). "Polystyrene Microspheres-Templated Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Hollow Spheres as Metal-Free Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction." Electrochimica Acta 188: 230-239.
 Lim, G.-T., H.-G. Jeong, I.-S. Hwang, D.-H. Kim, N. Park and J. Cho (2009). "Fabrication of a silica ceramic membrane using the aerosol flame deposition method for pretreatment focusing on particle control during desalination." Desalination 238(1–3): 53-59.
 Jang, J., & Kim, B.-S. (2000) J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 77: 903-913.
 Zhou, M. H., & Cho, W. J. (2003) J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 89: 1818-1824.
 Rastegarpanah, A. and H. R. Mortaheb (2016). "Surface treatment of polyethersulfone membranes for applying in desalination by direct contact membrane distillation." Desalination 377: 99-107.
 Sabir, A., A. Islam, M. Shafiq, A. Shafeeq, M. T. Z. Butt, N. M. Ahmad, K. Sanaullah and T. Jamil (2015). "Novel polymer matrix composite membrane doped with fumed silica particles for reverse osmosis desalination." Desalination 368: 159-170.
 Kumar, R., A. F. Ismail, M. A. Kassim and A. M. Isloor (2013). "Modification of PSf/PIAM membrane for improved desalination applications using Chitosan coagulation media." Desalination 317: 108-115.
 Saleh, T. A., A. M. Muhammad and S. A. Ali (2016). "Synthesis of hydrophobic cross-linked polyzwitterionic acid for simultaneous sorption of Eriochrome black T and chromium ions from binary hazardous waters." Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 468: 324-333.
 Misra, B. M. (2007). "Seawater desalination using nuclear heat/electricity- Prospects and challenges." Desalination 205(1–3): 269-278
 Jang, J., & Kim, B.-S. (2000) J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 77: 914-920.
 Coday, B. D., L. Miller-Robbie, E. G. Beaudry, J. Munakata-Marr and T. Y. Cath (2015). "Life cycle and economic assessments of engineered osmosis and osmotic dilution for desalination of Haynesville shale pit water." Desalination 369: 188-200.
 El-Manharawy, S. and A. Hafez (2003). "A new chemical classification system of natural waters for desalination and other industrial uses." Desalination 156(1–3): 163-180.