Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30127
Sociodemographic Risk Factors of Cervical Cancer in Imphal, Manipur
Abstract:Cervical cancer is preventable if detected early. Determination of risk factors is essential to plan screening programmes to prevent the disease. To study the demographic risk factors of cervical cancer among Manipuri women, information on age, marital status, educational level, monthly family income and socioeconomic status were collected through a pre-tested interview schedule. In this study, 64 incident cases registered at the RT Dept, RIMS (Regional Institute of Medical Sciences), Imphal, Manipur, India during 2008-09 participated. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and the results were expressed in percentages. Among the 64 patients with cervical cancer, 56 (88.9%) were in the age group of 40+ years. The majority of the patients were from rural areas (68.75%) and 31.25% were from urban areas. The majority of the patients were Hindus (73%), 55(85.9%) were of low educational level, 43(67.2%) were married, and 36 (56.25%) belonged to Class IV socioeconomic status. In conclusion, if detected early, cervical cancer is preventable and curable. The potential risk factors need to be identified and women in the risk group need to be motivated for screening. Affordable screening programmes and health care resources will help in lessening the burden of the disease.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1131739Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 634
 Torre, L. A., Freddie, B. F., Siegel, L. R., Ferlay, J., Ieulent, L.J., Jemal, A. (2015). Global cancer statistics 2012. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 65(2):87–108.
 Bruni, L., Barrionuevo-Rosas, L., Albero, G., Serrano, B., Mena, M., Gómez, D., Muñoz, J., Bosch, F.X., and de Sanjosé, S. (2016). ICO Information Centre on HPV and Cancer (HPV Information Centre). Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases in India. Summary Report 7 October 2016.
 Dey, S. (2016, May 4). Cervical cancer back as top killer among women. Times of India, p. 1. Retrieved on November 24, 2016 from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com
 Sreedevi, A., Javed, R. and Dinesh, A. (2015). Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India. Int J Women’s Health, 7: 405-414.
 National Cancer Registry Programme. (2009). Annual report of Population based cancer registry, Imphal, Manipur State. ICMR.
 Khan, Y. (2012). Maternal Health in Manipur. Journal of Development. Retrieved on November 24, 2016 from:https://journalofdevelopment.wordpress.com/2012/10/05/maternal-health-in-manipur/
 Ferenczy, A. and France, E. (2002). Persistent Human papillomaviruses infection and cervical neoplasia. Lancet Oncolgy, 3: 11-16.
 WHO. (2002). Cervical cancer screening in developing countries. WHO report, Geneva, 3-5.
 Irimie, S., Vladd, M., Mirestean, I.M., Balacescu, O., Rus, M., et al. (2011) Risk factors in a sample of patients with advanced cervical cancer. Appl Med Informatics, 29: 1-10.
 Shepherd, J., Weston, R., Peersman, G., and Napuli, I.Z. (2000). Interventions for encouraging sexual lifestyles and behaviours to prevent cervical cancer. Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, (2),CD0001035.
 Moodley, M., Moodley, J., Chetty, R., Herrington, C.S. (2003). The role of steroid contraceptive hormones in the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer: a review. QW-*\QHFRO&DQFHU, 13, 103-10.
 Shields, T.S., Brinton, L.A., Burk, R.D., et al. (2004). A case-control study of risk factors for invasive cervical cancer among U.S. women exposed to oncogenic types of human papillomavirus. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev.,13, 1574-1582.
 Parikh, S., Brennan, P., andBoffetta, P. (2003). Meta-analysis of social inequality and the risk of cervical cancer. Int J Cancer,105: 687–691.
 Sierra-Torres, C.H., Tyring, S.K., & Au, W.W. (2003). Risk contribution of sexual behaviour and cigarette smoking to cervical neoplasia. International Cancer of Gynecological Cancer, 13, 617-625.
 Parazzini, F., Vecchia, C., Ceccetti, G., et al. (1989). Reproductive factors and the risk of invasive and intraepithelial cervical neoplasia. Br J Cancer, 59: 805-809.
 Nandakumar, A., Anantha, N., and Venugopal, T.C. (1995). Incidence, mortality and survival in cancer of thecervix in Banglore, India. British Journal of Cancer,71: 1348-1352.
 Biswas, L.N., Manna, B., Maiti, P.K., et al. (1997). Sexual risk factors for cervical cancer among rural women: A case control study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 26(3): 491-495.
 Bayo, S., Bosch, F.X., Sanjose, S., et al.(2002). Risk factors of invasive cervical cancer in Mali. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31: 202-209.
 Thomas, D.B., Ray, R.M., Qin, Q., and the WHO collaborative study of neoplasia and steroid contraceptives. (2002). Risk factors for progression of squamous cell cervical carcinoma-in to invasive cervicalcancer: results of a multinational study. Cancer causes and control, 13: 683 -690.
 Varghese, P.R.(2004). Protective effect of a traditional practice against cervix cancer in Kerala, J. Hum Ecol.,15: 187-190.
 Kaku, M., Aleyamma, M. and Rajan, B. (2008). Impact of socioeconomic factors in delayed reporting and latestage presentation among patients with cervix cancer in a major cancer hospital in South India. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 9: 589-594.
 Misra, J.S., Srivastava, S., Singh, U., et al. (2009). Risk factors and strategies for control of carcinoma cervix inIndia: Hospital based cytological screening experience of 35 years. Indian Journal of Cancer, 46: 155-159.
 Chankapa, Y.D., Pal, R. and Tsering, D. (2011). Correlates of cervical cancer screening among undeservedwomen. Indian Journal of Cancer, 48: 40-46.
 Ushadevi, G., Arul, A.R. and Ashok, K. (2012). Knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors among the ruralwomen of Kancheepuram district, Tamil Nadu. Nat J Com Med., 1:125-128.
 Zeller, J.L., Lynm, C. and Glass, R.M. (2007). Carcinoma of the Cervix. JAMA Patient page. JAMA, 298(19): 2336.
 Coker, A.L.,Hopenhayn, C.,DeSimone, C. P., Bush, H. M., and Crofford, L. (2009). Violence against Women Raises Risk of Cervical Cancer. CRVAW Faculty Journal Articles. Paper 107.
 Singh, S. andBadaya, S. (2012) Factors Influencing uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in India: A Hospital based Pilot Study. J Community Med Health Educ., 2:157.
 Freeman HP (2003). Commentary on the meaning of race in science and society. Cancer EpidemiolBiomarkPrev., 12: 232S-236S.
 Thippeveeranna, C., Mohan, S.S., Singh, L.R. and Singh, N. N. (2013). Knowledge, attitude and practice of the pap smear as a screening procedure among nurses in a tertiary hospital in north eastern India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev., 14(2): 849-52.