Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30121
Sexualization of Women in Nigerian Magazine Advertisements

Authors: Kehinde Augustina Odukoya

Abstract:

This study examines the portrayal of women in Nigerian magazine advertisements, with the aim to investigate whether there is sexualization of women in the advertisements. To achieve this aim, content analyses of 61 magazine advertisements from 5 different categories of magazines; a general interest magazine (Genevieve), fashion magazine (Hints Complete Fashion), men’s magazine (Mode), women’s magazine (Totally Whole) and a relationship magazine (Forever) were carried out. Erving Goffman’s 1979 frame analysis and Kang’s two additional coding categories were used to investigate the sexualization of women. Findings show that women are used for decorative purposes and objectified in over 70 per cent of the advertisements analyzed. Also, there is sexualization of women in magazine advertisements because women are nude 57.4 percent of the magazine advertisements.

Keywords: Advertisements, magazine, sexualization, women.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1131699

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 596

References:


[1] M. Kang, “The portrayal of women’s image in magazine advertisements: Goffman’s gender analysis revisited,” Sex Roles, vol. 37, 1997, pp. 979-997.
[2] Y. Zotos, and E. Tsichla, “Female Portrayals in Advertising Past Research, New Directions,” International Journal on Strategic Innovative Marketing, 2014, vol. 1.
[3] J. Mager, and J.G. Helgeson, “Fifty years of advertising images: Some changing perspectives on role portrayals along with enduring consistencies,” Sex Roles, 2011. Vol. 64, pp. 238-252.
[4] K. Lindner, “Images of women in general interest and fashion magazine advertisements from 1955 to 2002,” Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 2004.
[5] A. Courtney and S. Lockeretz, “A woman’s place: An analysis of the roles portrayed by women in magazine advertisements,” Journal of Marketing Research, 1971, vol. 8, pp. 92-95.
[6] E. Goffman, Gender advertisements. New York: Harper, 1979.
[7] L. Wagner and J. Banos, “A woman’s place: A follow-up analysis of the roles portrayed by women in magazine advertisements,” Journal of Marketing research, 1973, vol. 10, pp. 213-214.
[8] A. Belkaloui and J. Belkaloui, “A content analysis of the roles portrayed by women in print advertisements: 1958, 1970, 1972,” Journal of Marketing Research, 1976, vol. 13, pp. 168-172.
[9] A. Courtney and T. Whipple, “Female role portrayals in advertising and communication effectiveness: A review,” Journal of Advertising, 1985, vol. 14, pp. 4-8, pp. 16-17.
[10] J. Ferguson, P. Kreshel and S. Tinkham, “In the pages of ms: sex role portrayals of women in advertising,” Journal of Advertising, 1990, vol. 19, no 1, pp. 40-72.
[11] J. Umiker-Sebeok, “Power and construction of gendered spaces,” International Review of Sociology, 1996, vol. 6, pp. 389-404.
[12] D. Kellner, Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics Between the Modern and the Postmodern. London: Routledge, 1995.
[13] K. Malinauskaite, Perpetuation of Sexual Objectification & Silencing of Women. no date.
[14] J. Goh-Mah, “The objectification of women - it goes much further than sexy pictures,” 2013, Retrieved from The Huffington Post website: http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/joy-goh-mah/objectification-women-sexypictures_b_3403251.html
[15] M. Heru, “Gender and the Gaze: A cultural and psychological review,” International Journal of Psychotherapy, 2003, vol. 8, no 2, pp. 109-116.
[16] B. Balraj, “Understanding Objectification Theory,” International Journal on Studies in English Language and Literature (IJSELL), 2015, vol. 3, no 11, pp.70-74.
[17] B. Fredrickson, and T. Roberts, “Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks,” Psychology of Women Quarterly, 1997, vol. 21, pp. 173-206.
[18] D. Szymanski, L. Moffitt, and E. Carr, “Sexual Objectification of Women: Advances to Theory and Research” The Counseling Psychologist, 2011, vol. 39, no 1, pp. 6– 38.
[19] S. L. Bartky, Femininity and domination: Studies in the phenomenology of oppression. New York, NY: Routledge, 1990.
[20] L. Mulvey, Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema Screen.” Reprinted in Visual and Other Pleasures. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975, pp. 14-26.
[21] K. Krippendorff, Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1980.
[22] J. O. Onotina, The Representation of Women in Western Nigerian Lifestyle Magazine Advertisements; A Content Analysis. 2015.