Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30127
GIS-Based Spatial Distribution and Evaluation of Selected Heavy Metals Contamination in Topsoil around Ecton Mining Area, Derbyshire, UK

Authors: Zahid O. Alibrahim, Craig D. Williams, Clive L. Roberts


The study area (Ecton mining area) is located in the southern part of the Peak District in Derbyshire, England. It is bounded by the River Manifold from the west. This area has been mined for a long period. As a result, huge amounts of potentially toxic metals were released into the surrounding area and are most likely to be a significant source of heavy metal contamination to the local soil, water and vegetation. In order to appraise the potential heavy metal pollution in this area, 37 topsoil samples (5-20 cm depth) were collected and analysed for their total content of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni and V using ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) optical emission spectroscopy. Multivariate Geospatial analyses using the GIS technique were utilised to draw geochemical maps of the metals of interest over the study area. A few hotspot points, areas of elevated concentrations of metals, were specified, which are presumed to be the results of anthropogenic activities. In addition, the soil’s environmental quality was evaluated by calculating the Mullers’ Geoaccumulation index (I geo), which suggests that the degree of contamination of the investigated heavy metals has the following trend: Pb > Zn > Cu > Mn > Ni = Cr = V. Furthermore, the potential ecological risk, using the enrichment factor (EF), was also specified. On the basis of the calculated amount or the EF, the levels of pollution for the studied metals in the study area have the following order: Pb>Zn>Cu>Cr>V>Ni>Mn.

Keywords: Heavy metals, GIS, multivariate analysis, geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 749


[1] Alloway, B. "Heavy metals in soils, 1995", Blackie Academic and Professional, London, vol. 368.
[2] Bai, J., Xiao, R., Zhang, K. & Gao, H. 2012, "Arsenic and heavy metal pollution in wetland soils from tidal freshwater and salt marshes before and after the flow-sediment regulation regime in the Yellow River Delta, China", Journal of Hydrology, vol. 450, pp. 244-253.
[3] Barnatt, J. (2013) Delving Ever Deeper: The Ecton Mines Through Time illustrated ed. Peak District National Park Authority. p. 367.
[4] Bien, J.D., ter Meer, J., Rulkens, W.H., Rijnaarts, H.H.M. 2004, " A GIS-based approachfor the long-term prediction of human health risks at contaminated site ", Environmental Modeling assessment, vol. 9, pp. 221-226.
[5] Bradley, S. & Cox, J. 1986, "Heavy metals in the Hamps and Manifold valleys, North Staffordshire, UK: distribution in floodplain soils", Science of the total environment, vol. 50, pp. 103-128.
[6] Briggs, D.J., Collins, S., Elliott, P., Fischer, P., Kingham, S., Lebret, E., Pryl, K., van Reeuwijk, H., Smallbone, K. & Van Der Veen, A. 1997, "Mapping urban air pollution using GIS: a regression-based approach", International Journal of Geographical Information Science, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 699-718.
[7] Cheng, W., Zhang, X., Wang, K. & Dai, X. 2009, "Integrating classification and regression tree (CART) with GIS for assessment of heavy metals pollution", Environmental monitoring and assessment, vol. 158, no. 1-4, pp. 419-431.
[8] Cope F.W. 1973, “Woo Dale Borehole near Buxton, Derbyshire", Nature, pp. 243:29–30.
[9] Covelli, S. & Fontolan, G. 1997, "Application of a normalization procedure in determining regional geochemical baselines", Environmental Geology, vol. 30, no. 1-2, pp. 34-45.
[10] Davies, B.E. 1983, "Heavy metal contamination from base metal mining and smelting: implications for man and his environment",
[11] Doherty, G., Brunskill, G. & Ridd, M. 2000, "Natural and enhanced concentrations of trace metals in sediments of Cleveland Bay, Great Barrier Reef Lagoon, Australia", Marine pollution bulletin, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 337-344.
[12] Dunham, K. 1973, "A recent deep borehole near Eyam, Derbyshire", Nature, pp. 241, p. 84-85.
[13] Forstner, U. & Muller, G. 1981, "Concentrations of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in river sediments: geochemical background, man's influence and environmental impact", GeoJournal,
[14] Geeson, N., Abrahams, P., Murphy, M. & Thornton, I. 1998, "Fluorine and metal enrichment of soils and pasture herbage in the old mining areas of Derbyshire, UK", Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 217-231.
[15] Gimeno-García, E., Andreu, V. & Boluda, R. 1996, "Heavy metals incidence in the application of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides to rice farming soils", Environmental pollution, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 19-25.
[16] Ha, H., Olson, J.R., Bian, L. & Rogerson, P.A. 2014, "Analysis of heavy metal sources in soil using kriging interpolation on principal components", Environmental science & technology, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 4999-5007.
[17] Hakanson, L. 1980, "An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control. A sedimentological approach", Water research, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 975-1001.
[18] Harris, H. 1971, The industrial archaeology of the Peak District, David & Charles Publishers.
[19] Harrison, R.M. 2001, Pollution: causes, effects and control, Royal Society of Chemistry.
[20] He, B., Yun, Z., Shi, J. & Jiang, G. 2013, "Research progress of heavy metal pollution in China: Sources, analytical methods, status, and toxicity", Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 134-140.
[21] Hu, Y., Liu, X., Bai, J., Shih, K., Zeng, E.Y. & Cheng, H. 2013, "Assessing heavy metal pollution in the surface soils of a region that had undergone three decades of intense industrialization and urbanization", Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 6150-6159.
[22] ICRCL, Interdepartmental Committee on the Redevelopment of Contaminated Land (1990) Notes on the restoration and aftercare of metalliferous mining sites for pasture and grazing, 1St edn. Department of Environment, ICRCL Guidance Note 70/90, London. ", 1990,
[23] Ineson, P. R. a. F., T.D. 1982, "The South pennine Orefield: its genetic theories and eastward extesion: Mercian Geol.", vol. 8, pp. 285-303.
[24] Ixer, R. A., and Vaughan, D.J 1993, "Lead -zinc-fluorite- baryte deposits of the pennines, North Wales and the Mendips: Mineralization in the British Isles p. 355-418.”
[25] Jackson, T.A. 1997, "Long-range atmospheric transport of mercury to ecosystems, and the importance of anthropogenic emissions A critical review and evaluation of the published evidence", Environmental Reviews, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 99-120.
[26] John Barnatt 2013, Delving Ever Deeper: The cton Mines Through Time illustrated edn, Peak District National Park Authority.
[27] Larrose, A., Coynel, A., Schäfer, J., Blanc, G., Massé, L. & Maneux, E. 2010, "Assessing the current state of the Gironde Estuary by mapping priority contaminant distribution and risk potential in surface sediment", Applied Geochemistry, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 1912-1923.
[28] Levinson, A.A. 1974, "Introduction to exploration geochemistry. (Textbook)”,
[29] Liu, X., Wu, J. & Xu, J. 2006, "Characterizing the risk assessment of heavy metals and sampling uncertainty analysis in paddy field by geostatistics and GIS", Environmental Pollution, vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 257-264.
[30] Lu, X., Wang, L., Lei, K., Huang, J. & Zhai, Y. 2009, "Contamination assessment of copper, lead, zinc, manganese and nickel in street dust of Baoji, NW China", Journal of hazardous materials, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 1058-1062.
[31] Macklin, M.G. & Dowsett, R.B. 1989, "The chemical and physical speciation of trace metals in fine grained overbank flood sediments in the Tyne basin, north-east England", Catena, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 135-151.
[32] Matthai, C. & Birch, G. 2001, "Detection of anthropogenic Cu, Pb and Zn in continental shelf sediments off Sydney, Australia–a new approach using normalization with Cobalt", Marine pollution bulletin, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 1055-1063.
[33] Meinardi, C.R., Beusen, A.H.W., Bollen, M.J.S., Klepper, O. & Willems, W.J. 1995, "Vulnerability to diffuse pollution and average nitrate contamination of European soils and groundwater", Water Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 159-165.
[34] Özer, A. & Pirincci, H. 2006, "The adsorption of Cd (II) ions on sulphuric acid-treated wheat bran", Journal of hazardous materials, vol. 137, no. 2, pp. 849-855.
[35] Parveen, N. 2012, "A GIS Based Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Surface Soil of Urban Parks: A Case Study of Faisalabad City-Pakistan", Journal of Geography & Natural Disasters.
[36] Quevauviller, P., Lavigne, R. & Cortez, L. 1989, "Impact of industrial and mine drainage wastes on the heavy metal distribution in the drainage basin and estuary of the Sado River (Portugal)", Environmental Pollution, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 267-286.
[37] Reimann, C. & Caritat, P.d. 1998, "Chemical elements in the environment: factsheets for the geochemist and environmental scientist.” Chemical elements in the environment: factsheets for the geochemist and environmental scientist., .
[38] Robey, J. & Porter, L. 1972, “The Copper & Lead Mines of Ecton Hill, Staffordshire ", Moorland Publishing Co., UK, pp. 7-8.
[39] Saleem, M., Iqbal, J. & Shah, M.H. 2015, "Geochemical speciation, anthropogenic contamination, risk assessment and source identification of selected metals in freshwater sediments—A case study from Mangla Lake, Pakistan", Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, .
[40] Salmanighabeshi, S., Palomo-Marín, M.R., Bernalte, E., Rueda-Holgado, F., Miró-Rodríguez, C., Fadic-Ruiz, X., Vidal-Cortez, V., Cereceda-Balic, F. & Pinilla-Gil, E. 2015, "Long-term assessment of ecological risk from deposition of elemental pollutants in the vicinity of the industrial area of Puchuncaví-Ventanas, central Chile", Science of The Total Environment, vol. 527, pp. 335-343.
[41] Schiff, K. & Weisberg, S.B. 1999, "Iron as a reference element for determining trace metal enrichment in Southern California coastal shelf sediments", Marine environmental research, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 161-176.
[42] Shao, X., Huang, B., Zhao, Y., Sun, W., Gu, Z. & Qian, W. 2014, "Impacts of human activities and sampling strategies on soil heavy metal distribution in a rapidly developing region of China", Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, vol. 104, pp. 1-8.
[43] Smith, K. M. A., P.W., Dagleish, M.P. & Steigmajer, J. 2009, " The intake of lead and associated metals by sheep grazing ming -contaminated floodplain pastures in mid-Wales, UK: soil ingestion, soil-matal partitioning and potential availability to pasture herbage and livestock ", Science of the Total Environment, vol. 407, pp. 3731-3739.
[44] Suresh, G., Ramasamy, V., Sundarrajan, M. & Paramasivam, K. 2015, "Spatial and vertical distributions of heavy metals and their potential toxicity levels in various beach sediments from high-background-radiation area, Kerala, India", Marine pollution bulletin, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 389-400.
[45] Sutherland, R. (2000) Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawaii. Environmental Geology (online), 39(6), pp. 611-627.
[46] Tam, N. & Yao, M. 1998, "Normalisation and heavy metal contamination in mangrove sediments", Science of the Total Environment, vol. 216, no. 1, pp. 33-39.
[47] Taylor, M.P. 1996, "The variability of heavy metals in floodplain sediments: a case study from mid Wales", Catena, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 71-87.
[48] Tessier, A., Campbell, P.G. & Bisson, M. 1979, "Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals", Analytical Chemistry, vol. 51, no. 7, pp. 844-851.
[49] Tiller, K., Oliver, D., McLaughling, M. & Naidu, R. 1995, "Managing cadmium contribution of agriculture land In: Iskanar, IK & Adriano, DC (eds.). Remediation of soils contaminated by metals", Science and Technology Letters, Northwood, Middlesex,.
[50] Tume, P., Bech, J., Sepulveda, B., Tume, L. & Bech, J. 2008, "Concentrations of heavy metals in urban soils of Talcahuano (Chile): a preliminary study", Environmental monitoring and assessment, vol. 140, no. 1-3, pp. 91-98.
[51] Walling, D., Owens, P., Carter, J., Leeks, G., Lewis, S., Meharg, A. & Wright, J. 2003, "Storage of sediment-associated nutrients and contaminants in river channel and floodplain systems", Applied Geochemistry, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 195-220.
[52] Walsh, S.J. 1988, "Geographic Information Systems An Instructional Tool for Earth Science Educators", Journal of Geography, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 17-25.
[53] Wang, L., Yang, L., Kong, L., Li, S., Zhu, J. & Wang, Y. 2014, "Spatial distribution, source identification and pollution assessment of metal content in the surface sediments of Nansi Lake, China", Journal of Geochemical Exploration, vol. 140, pp. 87-95.
[54] Wedepohl, K.H. 1995, "The composition of the continental crust", Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 1217-1232.
[55] Wei, B. & Yang, L. 2010, "A review of heavy metal contaminations in urban soils, urban road dusts and agricultural soils from China", Microchemical Journal, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 99-107.
[56] Windom, H.L., Schropp, S.J., Calder, F.D., Ryan, J.D., Smith Jr, R.G., Burney, L.C., Lewis, F.G. & Rawlinson, C.H. 1989, "Natural trace metal concentrations in estuarine and coastal marine sediments of the southeastern United States", Environmental science & technology, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 314-320.
[57] Yang, Z., Lu, W., Long, Y., Bao, X. & Yang, Q. 2011, "Assessment of heavy metals contamination in urban topsoil from Changchun City, China", Journal of Geochemical Exploration, vol. 108, no. 1, pp. 27-38.
[58] Yaylalı-Abanuz, G. 2011, "Heavy metal contamination of surface soil around Gebze industrial area, Turkey", Microchemical Journal, vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 82-92.
[59] Young, E.A. 2006, Monitoring and measuring the impacts and environmental implications of flood events on contaminated sediment dispersal in the River Swale catchment, North Yorkshire.
[60] Zhong, L., Liu, L. & Yang, J. 2012, "Characterization of heavy metal pollution in the paddy soils of Xiangyin County, Dongting lake drainage basin, central south China", Environmental Earth Sciences, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 2261-2268.