Electric Vehicle Market Penetration Impact on Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Policy-Making: A Case Study of United Arab Emirates
Authors: Ahmed Kiani
The United Arab Emirates is clearly facing a multitude of challenges in curbing its greenhouse gas emissions to meet its pre-allotted framework of Kyoto protocol and COP21 targets due to its hunger for modernization, industrialization, infrastructure growth, soaring population and oil and gas activity. In this work, we focus on the bonafide zero emission electric vehicles market penetration in the country’s transport industry for emission reduction. We study the global electric vehicle market trends, the complementary battery technologies and the trends by manufacturers, emission standards across borders and prioritized advancements which will ultimately dictate the terms of future conditions for the United Arab Emirate transport industry. Based on our findings and analysis at every stage of current viability and state-of-transport-affairs, we postulate policy recommendations to local governmental entities from a supply and demand perspective covering aspects of technology, infrastructure requirements, change in power dynamics, end user incentives program, market regulators behavior and communications amongst key stakeholders.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1131377Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1002
 P. Vine, and I. A. Abed, United Arab Emirates: a new perspective, Trident Press, United Kingdom, 2001.
 International Energy Agency (IEA), World Energy Outlook 2014, 2014.
 S. Shafiee, and E. Topal, “When will fossil fuel reserves be diminished?,” Energy Policy, vol. 37, pp. 181-189, Jan. 2009.
 S. L. Koh, and Y. S. Lim, “Meeting energy demand in a developing economy without damaging the environment—A case study in Sabah, Malaysia, from technical, environmental and economic perspectives,” Energy Policy, vol. 38, pp. 4719-4728, Aug. 2010.
 V. Crastan, Global Energy Demand and 2-degree Target, Report, 2014, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 2014.
 International Energy Agency (IEA), World energy outlook, 2007.
 U.S. Energy Information Administration (US EIA), Department of Energy, United States of America, United Arab Emirates, International Energy Data and Analysis, 2015.
 E. S. Rubin, C. Chen, and A. B. Rao, “Cost and performance of fossil fuel power plants with CO2 capture and storage,” Energy Policy, vol. 35, pp. 4444-4454, Sept. 2007.
 A. Zecca, and L. Chiari, “Fossil-fuel constraints on global warming,” Energy Policy, vol. 38, pp. 1-3, Jan. 2010.
 M. Höök, and X. Tang, “Depletion of fossil fuels and anthropogenic climate change—A review”, Energy Policy, vol. 52, pp. 797-809, Jan. 2013.
 U.S. Energy Information Administration (US EIA), Department of Energy, United States of America, EIA Electricity, International data, 2010.
 N. Lior, “Energy resources and use: The present situation and possible sustainable paths to the future,” Energy, vol. 35, pp. 2631-2638, 2010.
 U. K. Rout, Modelling of endogenous technological learning of energy, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 2007.
 United Nations, Japan, 1998. Kyoto protocol to the United Nations framework convention on climate change. Framework convention on climate change. Conference of the Parties, France, 2015.
 J. Houghton, “Global warming,” Reports on Progress in Physics, vol. 68, pp. 1343-1403, May 2005.
 I. Dincer, A. Midilli, A. Hepbasli, and T. K. Hikmet, Global Warming: Engineering Solutions, New York: Springer, United States of America, 2010.
 F. Gaioli, and G. Dutt, “Coping with climate change,” Economical & Political Weekly, vol. 42, pp. 4239-4250, Oct. 2007.
 International Government Panel on Climate Change, IPCC, Climate change 2013: The physical science basis, 2013.
 The National UAE, 2013. UAE released 200m tonnes of greenhouse gases in 2013. http://www.thenational.ae/uae/environment/uae-released-200m- tonnes-of-greenhouse-gases-in-2013 (assessed: 25.12.2016).
 S. Yedla, and R. M. Shrestha, “Multi-criteria approach for the selection of alternative options for environmentally sustainable transport system in Delhi,” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, vol. 37, pp. 717-729, Oct. 2003.
 G. Pisotoia, Electric and hybrid vehicles: Power sources, models, sustainability infrastructure and the market, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2010.
 W. Kempton, and S. E. Letendre, “Electric vehicles as a new power source for electric utilities,” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, vol. 2, pp. 157-175, Sept. 1997.
 O. Tremblay, L. A. Dessaint, and A. I. Dekkiche, “A generic battery model for the dynamic simulation of hybrid electric vehicles,” in Proc IEEE Veh. Power and Prop. Conf. VPCC, 2007, pp. 284-289.
 A. Sciarretta, M. Back, and L. Guzzella, “Optimal control of parallel hybrid electric vehicles,” IEEE Trans. on Control Systems Tech., vol. 12, pp. 352-363, May 2007.
 A. Emadi, J. L. Lee, and K. Rajashekara, “Power electronics and motor drives in electric, hybrid electric, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,” IEEE Trans. on Industrial Electronics, vol. 55, pp. 2237-2245, June 2008.
 A. Khaligh, and Z. Li, “Battery, ultracapacitor, fuel cell, and hybrid energy storage systems for electric, hybrid electric, fuel cell, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: state of the art,”, IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Tech., vol. 59, pp. 2806-2814, July 2010.
 E. Sortomme, M. M. Hindi, S. D. J. MacPherson, and S. S. Venkata, “Coordinated charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles to minimize distribution system losses,” IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 2, pp. 198-205, Mar. 2011.
 J. A. P. Lopes, F. J. Soares, and P. M. R. Almeida, “Integration of electric vehicles in the electric power system,” in Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 99, pp. 168-183, Jan. 2011.
 L. P. Fernandez, T. G. S. Roman, R. Cossent, C. M. Domingo, and P. Frias, “Assessment of the impact of plug-in electric vehicles on distribution networks,” IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 26, pp. 206-213, Feb. 2011.
 S. W. Hadley, and A. A. Tsvetkova, “Potential impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on regional power generation,” The Electricity Journal, vol. 22, pp. 56-68, Dec. 2009.
 L. Lua, X. Hana, J. Lia, J. Huab, and M. Ouyanga, “A review on the key issues for lithium-ion battery management in electric vehicles,”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 226, pp. 272-288, Mar. 2013.
 L. Schlapbach, and A. Züttel, “Hydrogen-storage materials for mobile applications,” Nature, vol. 414, pp. 353-358, Nov. 2001.
 J. Larminie, and A. Dicks, Fuel cell systems explained, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, England, United Kingdom, 2003.
 C. E. Thomas, “Fuel cell and battery electric vehicles compared,” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, vol. 34, pp. 6005-6020, Aug. 2009.
 F. R. Salmasi, “Control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles: evolution, classification, comparison, and future trends,” IEEE Trans. on Vehicular Tech., vol. 56, pp. 2393-2404, Sept. 2007.
 L. Turcksina, C. Macharis, K. Lebeau, F. Boureima, J. V. Mierlo, S. Bram, J. D. Ruyck, L. Mertens, J. M. Jossart, L. Gorissen, and L. Pelkmans, “A multi-actor multi-criteria framework to assess the stakeholder support for different biofuel options: The case of Belgium,” Energy Policy, vol. 39, pp. 200-214, Jan. 2011.
 N. Lubbe, and U. Sahlin, “Benefits of biofuels in Sweden: A probabilistic re-assessment of the index of new cars’ climate impact”, Applied Energy, vol. 92, pp. 473-479, Apr. 2012.
 L. Conti, M. Ferrera, R. Garlaseo, E. Volpi, and G. M. Cornetti, “Rationale of dedicated low emitting CNG cars,” SAE 1993 Transactions: Journal of Fuels & Lubricants - V102-4, 1993.
 S. D. Pascoli, A. Femia, and T. Luzzati, “Natural gas, cars and the environment. A (relatively) ‘clean’ and cheap fuel looking for users,” Ecological Economics, vol. 38, pp. 179-189, Aug. 2001.
 S. Pischinger, M. Umierski, and B. Hüchtebrock, “New CNG concepts for passenger cars: high torque engines with superior fuel consumption,” Advanced Spark-Ignition Engines and Gaseous Alternative Fuels - SP-1792, 2003.
 M. Frick, K. W. Axhausen, G. Carle, and A. Wokaun, “Optimization of the distribution of compressed natural gas (CNG) refueling stations: Swiss case studies,” Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, vol. 12, pp. 10-22, Jan. 2007.
 P. Gao, H. W. Kaas, D. Mohr, and D. Wee, “Automotive revolution – perspective towards 2030 How the convergence of disruptive technology-driven trends could transform the auto industry,” Advanced Industries, McKinsey & Company, 2016.
 K. T. Chau, and Y. S. Wong, “Overview of power management in hybrid electric vehicles,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 43, pp. 1953-1968, Oct. 2002.
 A. F. Burke, “Batteries and ultracapacitors for electric, hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles,” in Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 95, pp. 806-820, Apr. 2007.
 Harvard Faculty Research Working Paper, Will Electric Cars Transform the U.S. Market?, 2011.
 Harvard Faculty Research Working Paper, Leapfrogging or Stalling Out?, Electric Vehicles in China, 2014.
 R. Koh, A. Martin, N. Markiewicz, and A. C. Li, “Australia utilities asia insight: solar & batteries,” Morgan Stanley Research, 2016.
 D. A. J. Rand, Batteries for electric vehicles: Electronic & Electrical Engineering Research Studies, Power Sources Technology Series 4, Wiley, United Kingdom, 1997.
 Focus2Move. http://focus2move.com (assessed: 25.11.2016).
 Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d ’Automobiles (OICA). http://www.oica.net (assessed: 25.11.2016).
 Emirates NBD Research, 2015. UAE’s automotive sector overview. https://www.emiratesnbd.com/plugins/ResearchDocsManagement/Documents/Research/Emirates%20NBD%20Research%20UAE's%20Automotive%20Sector%20Overview%204%20February%202015.pdf (assessed: 05.12.2016).
 Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com (accessed: 09.12.2016).
 United Nations, 2016. Demographic and social statistics (accessed 10.12.2016)
 F. He, Y. Yin, J. Wang, and Y. Yang, “Optimal prices of electricity at public charging stations for plug-in electric vehicles,” Networks and Spatial Economics, vol. 16, pp. 131-154, Mar. 2016.
 F. He, D. Wu, Y. Yin, and Y. Guan, “Optimal deployment of public charging stations for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,” Transportation Part B. Methodological, vol. 47, pp. 87-101, Jan. 2013.
 Tesla. https://www.tesla.com (assessed: 25.11.2016).
 Dubai Electric and Water Company (DEWA). https://www.dewa.gov.ae/en/customer/innovation/smart-initiatives/electrical-vehicle-charging-stations (assessed: 05.12.2016).
 Department of Statistics, Government of Dubai, Vehicles Registered on the Road by Class of Vehicle Until End of The Period - Emirate of Dubai, 2013. https://www.dsc.gov.ae/en-us (assessed: 05.12.2016).
 Road and Transport Authority (RTA). https://www.rta.ae com (assessed: 25.11.2016).
 Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Company (ADWEC), United Arab Emirates, Statement of future capacity requirements 2008-2030, 2008.
 Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council, Government of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, Sustainable development in practice, Review and Analysis 2012, 2012.
 TRANSCO, Abu Dhabi Transmission and Dispatch Company, Power Network Development Department Asset Management Directorate, United Arab Emirates, Seven year electricity planning statement from 2014-2020., 2013.