Existence of Nano-Organic Carbon Particles below the Size Range of 10 nm in the Indoor Air Environment
Indoor air environment is a big concern in the last few decades in the developing countries, with increased focus on monitoring the air quality. In this work, an experimental study has been conducted to establish the existence of carbon nanoparticles below the size range of 10 nm in the non-sooting zone of a LPG/air partially premixed flame. Mainly, four optical techniques, UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and TEM have been used to characterize and measure the size of carbon nanoparticles in the sampled materials collected from the inner surface of the flame front. The existence of the carbon nanoparticles in the sampled material has been confirmed with the typical nature of the absorption and fluorescence spectra already reported in the literature. The band gap energy shows that the particles are made up of three to six aromatic rings. The size measurement by DLS technique also shows that the particles below the size range of 10 nm. The results of DLS are also corroborated by the TEM image of the same material.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1131329Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 798
 Centre for Monitoring of Indian Economy, Current Energy Scene in India, Economic Intelligence Service (1992).
 G. G. Pandit, P. K. Srivastava, A. M. Mohan Rao, Monitoring of indoor volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons arising from kerosene cooking fuel, The Science of the Total Environment 279, 2001.159-165.
 Nguyen, T.K.O., Lars, B., Etz, R., Nghiem, T.D., 1999. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and particulate matter from domestic combustion of selected fuels. Environmental Science and Technology 33, 2703–2709.
 P. Monkkfnen, P. Pai, A. Maynard, K.E.J. Lehtinen, K. Hameri et al., Fine particle number and mass concentration measurements in urban Indian households, Science of the Total Environment 347 (2005) 131– 147.
 H. Tokiwa, B. Nakagawa and R. Horikawa, Mut. Res. 157, 39 (1985).
 H. W. De Koning, K. R. Smith and J. M. Last, Bull. Worm Health Organisation 63, 11 (1985).
 The World Health Report 02, dated: 20/01/17. http://www.who.int/whr/2002/chapter4/en/index7.html.
 Smith K R. National burden of disease in India from indoor air pollution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (PNAS) 2000; 97:24.
 Dung, N. H. Kitchen Improvement-the Combination of Traditional and Modern in Kitchens; In Kitchens, Living Environment and Household Energy in Vietnam; Report on the Urban Building and energy Project and the Seminar in Lund, 27-30 April, 1993; published by Lund Center for Habitat Studies, Sweden and Hanoi Architectural Institute, Vietnam, ISBN 91- 87866-11-0.
 Anuj Bhargava, R.N. Khanna, S.K. Bhargava, Sushil Kumar, Exposure risk to carcinogenic PAHs in indoor-air during biomass combustion whilst cooking in rural India, Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 4761–4767.
 Kandpal, J. B.; Maheshwari, R. C.; Kandpal, T. C. Indoor air pollution from domestic cookstoves using coal, kerosene and LPG. Energy Convers. Manage. 1995, 36, 1067-1072.
 Kandpal, J. B.; Maheshwari, R. C.; Kandpal, T. C. Indoor air pollution from combustion of wood and dung cake and their processed fuels in domestic cookstoves. Energy Convers. Manage. 1995, 36, 1073-1079.
 Ayten Yilmaz Wagner, Hans Livbjerg, Per Gravers Kristensen, and Peter Glarborg, Particle Emissions From Domestic Gas Cookers, Combust. Sci. and Tech., 182: 1511–1527, 2010.
 Li-Zhong Zhu, Xuey ou Shen,and Yong-Jian Liu, Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Indoor and Outdoor Air with Chromatographic Methods, Journal Of Environmental Science And Health Part A—Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering Vol. A38, No. 5, pp. 779–792, 2003.
 C. Viau, G. Hakizimana, M. Bouchard, Indoor exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in traditional houses in Burundi, Int Arch Occup Environ Health (2000) 73: 331±338.
 Minutolo, P., D’Anna, A., Commodo, M., Pagliara, R., Toniato, G., Accordini, C., Emission of fine particles from natural gas domestic burners. Environmental Engineering Science 2008, 25(10), 1357-1363.
 Minutolo, P, Sgro L. A., Costagliola M. A., Prati M.V., Sirignano M., D’Anna A., Ultrafine particle emission from combustion devices burning natural gas, Chemical Engineering Transactions Volume 22, 2010.
 M. Dennekamp, S. Howarth, C. A. J Dick, J. W. Cherrie, K Donaldson, A Seaton, Ultrafine particles and nitrogen oxides generated by gas and electric cooking, Occup Environ Med 2001;58:511-516.
 Lance Wallace, Indoor Sources of Ultrafine and Accumulation Mode Particles: Size Distributions, Size-Resolved Concentrations, and Source Strengths, Aerosol Science and Technology, 40:348–360, 2006.
 Wallace, L., Wang, F., Howard-Reed, C., Persily, A., Contribution of Gas and Electric Stoves to Residential Ultrafine Particle Concentrations between 2 and 64 nm: Size Distributions and Emission and Coagulation Rates. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2008, 42 (23), 8641-8647.
 D’Anna, A. 2009. Combustion formed nanoparticles. Proc. Combust. Inst., 32, 593–613.
 A. Bruno, C. de Lisio, P. Minutolo, A. D’Alessio, “Evidence of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles produced in premixed flames by time-resolved fluorescence polarization anisotropy,” Combustion and Flame, vol. 151, pp. 472–481, 2007.
 P. Minutolo, G. Gambi, A. D’Alessio, Proc. Combust. Inst. 26 (1996) 951–957.
 A. D’Alessio, A. D’Anna, G. Gambi, P. Minutolo, J. Aerosol. Sci. 29 (1998) 397– 409.
 B. Paul, A. Datta, A. Datta, A. Saha, Combustion and Flame 156 (2009) 2319-2327.
 A. D’Anna, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 32 (2009) 593–613.
 R. A. Dobbins, Aerosol Science and Technology 41 (2007) 485–496.
 B. Zhao, K. Uchikawa, H. Wang, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 31 (2007) 851–860.
 Donaldson K, Stone V, Clouter A, Renwick L, MacNee W. Ultrafine particles. Occupational Environmental Medicine 2001;58:211 – 6.
 Oberdfrster G. Lung particle overload: implications for occupational exposures to particles. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 1995; 21(1):123–35.
 Peters A, Wichman HE, Tuch T, Heinrich J, Heyder J. Respiratory effects are associated with the number of ultrafine particles. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1997;155:1376 –83.
 J. Robertson, E.P. O’Reilly, Phys. Rev. 35 (6) (1987).
 B. Zhao, K. Uchikawa, H. Wang, A comparative study of nanoparticles in premixed flames by scanning mobility particle sizer, small angle neutron scattering, and transmission electron microscopy, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute 31 (2007) 851–860.