Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32718
Gated Communities and Sense of Community: A Review on the Social Features of Gated Communities

Authors: R. Rafiemanzelat


Since the mid-1970s, gated communities distributed in Latin America. They are a kind of residential development where there are privatized public spaces, and access to the area is restricted. They have specific impacts on the neighborhoods that located outside their walls such as threatening security, limiting access, and spreading social inequality. This research mainly focused on social features of gated community as; segregation, fragmentation, exclusion, specifically on sense of community and typology of gated communities. The conclusion will clarify the pros and cons of gated communities and how it could be successful or not.

Keywords: Walled community, gated community, urban development, urban sociology, sense of community.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1825


[1] Austin, D. Mark, L. Allen Furr, and Michael Spine. "The effects of neighborhood conditions on perceptions of safety." Journal of criminal justice 30, no. 5 (2002): 417-427.
[2] Blakely EJ, Snyder MG, editors. ‘Fortress America: gated communities in the United States’. Brookings Institution Press; (1997).
[3] Blanchard, Anita L. "Testing a model of sense of virtual community." Computers in Human Behavior 24, no. 5 (2008): 2107-2123.
[4] Lister, Diane, Rowland Atkinson, and John Flint. Gated communities: a systematic review of the research evidence. Bristol: ESRC Centre for Neighbourhood Research, 2003.
[5] Coy M, Pöhler M. Gated communities in Latin American megacities: case studies in Brazil and Argentina. Environment and Planning B: Planning and design. 2002 Jun 1; 29(3):355-70.
[6] Davis, Mike. ‘Fortress Los Angeles: the militarization of urban space.’ Variations on a theme park (1992): 154-180.
[7] Ft Lauderdale Police Department Crime Prevention/Planning and Research Unit (1990) Street Closure Study. Ft Lauderdale, FL.
[8] Geniş, Şerife. ‘Producing elite localities: The rise of gated communities in Istanbul.’ Urban Studies 44, no. 4 (2007): 771-798.
[9] Glasze, Georg, and Abdallah Alkhayyal. ‘Gated housing estates in the Arab world: case studies in Lebanon and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.’ Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 29, no. 3 (2002): 321-336.
[10] Gottdiener, Mark, and Ray Hutchison. The new urban sociology. Westview Press, 2010.
[11] Grant, Jill. ‘Planning responses to gated communities in Canada.’ Housing Studies 20, no. 2 (2005): 273-285.
[12] Grant, Jill, and Lindsey Mittelsteadt. ‘Types of gated communities.’ Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 31, no. 6 (2004): 913-930.
[13] Gooblar, Aron. ‘Outside the walls: Urban gated communities and their regulation within the British planning system.’ European Planning Studies 10, no. 3 (2002): 321-334.
[14] Gülümser, A. A. ‘A New Trend in Urbanization: Gated Communities in Istanbul unpublished Master Thesis Supervised by Assoc.’ Prof. Dr. Tüzin Baycan Levent, Institute of Technology and Science, Istanbul Technical University (2005).
[15] Jacobs, J. (1962) The Life and Death of Great American Cities. London: Jonathan Cape.
[16] Jürgens, Ulrich, and Karina Landmann. Gated communities in South Africa. na, 2006.
[17] Landman, Karina. ‘Gated communities and urban sustainability: Taking a closer look at the future.’ (2000a).
[18] Landman, Karina. ‘Planning in the African context: reconsidering current approaches to gated communities in South Africa.’ Planning Africa (2002b).
[19] Landman, Karina. ‘Urban future: enclosed neighbourhoods.’ (2000c).
[20] Landman, Karina, and Martin Schönteich. ‘Urban fortresses: Gated communities as a reaction to crime.’ African Security Review 11, no. 4 (2002): 71-85.
[21] Low, Setha M. Behind the Gates: Security and the New American Dream. Routledge, 2003.
[22] Manzi, Tony, and Bill Smith Bowers. ‘So many managers, so little vision: registered social landlords and consortium schemes in the UK.’ European Journal of Housing Policy 4, no. 1 (2004): 57-75.
[23] McGoey, Chris E. ‘Gated Community: Access Control Issues.’ Crime Doctor (2003).
[24] McMillan, David W., and David M. Chavis. ‘Sense of community: A definition and theory.’ Journal of community psychology 14, no. 1 (1986): 6-23.
[25] Sanchez, Thomas W., and Robert Lang. Security versus status: the two worlds of gated communities. Metropolitan Institute at Virginia Tech., 2002.
[26] Newman, Peter, and Andy Thornley. Planning world cities: globalization and urban politics. Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
[27] Rogers, George Oliver, and Sineenart Sukolratanametee. ‘Neighborhood design and sense of community: Comparing suburban neighborhoods in Houston Texas.’ Landscape and urban Planning 92, no. 3 (2009): 325-334.
[28] Scott, Allen. Global city-regions: trends, theory, policy. Oxford University Press, 2002.
[29] Webster, Chris. ‘Property rights and the public realm: gates, green belts, and Gemeinschaft.’ Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 29, no. 3 (2002): 397-412.
[30] Wilson-Doenges, Georjeanna. ‘An exploration of sense of community and fear of crime in gated communities.’ Environment and behavior 32, no. 5 (2000): 597-611.
[31] Burke M, 2001, “The Pedestrian Behaviour of Residents in Gated Communities”, paper presented at the Conference of Australia: Walking the 21st century- 20th to 22nd February 2001, Perth, Western Australia
[32] Luymes D, 1997, “The Fortification of Suburbia: Investigating the Rise of Enclave Communities”, Landscape and Urban Planning 39 187–203
[33] Le Goix R. Gated communities as predators of public resources. Private cities: Global and Local Perspectives, (2006); 76-91.