Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32586
Assessment of Urban Heat Island through Remote Sensing in Nagpur Urban Area Using Landsat 7 ETM+ Satellite Images

Authors: Meenal Surawar, Rajashree Kotharkar


Urban Heat Island (UHI) is found more pronounced as a prominent urban environmental concern in developing cities. To study the UHI effect in the Indian context, the Nagpur urban area has been explored in this paper using Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite images through Remote Sensing and GIS techniques. This paper intends to study the effect of LU/LC pattern on daytime Land Surface Temperature (LST) variation, contributing UHI formation within the Nagpur Urban area. Supervised LU/LC area classification was carried to study urban Change detection using ENVI 5. Change detection has been studied by carrying Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) to understand the proportion of vegetative cover with respect to built-up ratio. Detection of spectral radiance from the thermal band of satellite images was processed to calibrate LST. Specific representative areas on the basis of urban built-up and vegetation classification were selected for observation of point LST. The entire Nagpur urban area shows that, as building density increases with decrease in vegetation cover, LST increases, thereby causing the UHI effect. UHI intensity has gradually increased by 0.7°C from 2000 to 2006; however, a drastic increase has been observed with difference of 1.8°C during the period 2006 to 2013. Within the Nagpur urban area, the UHI effect was formed due to increase in building density and decrease in vegetative cover.

Keywords: Land use, land cover, land surface temperature, remote sensing, urban heat island.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2462


[1] Oke. et al., "Comparison of Urban Rural Cooling Rates at Night," in Conference on Urban Environment and Second Conference on Biometeorology, Philadelphia, 1972.
[2] Berdahl P. and Bretz S., "Priliminary survey of the Solar Reflectance of Cool Roofing Materials," Energy and Buildings, pp. 149-158, 1997.
[3] Padmanabhamurty B. and Bahl H. D., "Some Physical features of heat and humidity islands at Delhi," Mausam, pp. 211-216, 1982.
[4] Taha H., "Urban climates and heat islands- albedo, evapotranspiration and anthropogenic heat," Energy and Buildings 25, pp. 99-103, 1997.
[5] Adebayo Y., "Aspects of the variation in some characteristics of radiation budget within the urban canopy of Ibadan," Atmospheric, Environment, vol. B 24, pp. 9-17, 1990.
[6] Arnfield A. J., "Two decades of urban climate research: A Review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water and urban heat island," International Journal of Climatology, pp. 1-26, 2003.
[7] Voogt J. A. and Oke T. R., "Thermal Remote Sensing of Uran areas," Remote Sensing of Environment, pp. 370-384, 2004.
[8] Chrysoulakis N., "Energy in the Urban Environment: Use of Terra/ Aster imagery as a tool in Urban planning," Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, pp. 245-254, 2002.
[9] Oke T. R., "Boundary layer climates," John Wiley and Sons, New York, vol. 435, 1987.
[10] Giridharan. R. et al., "Daytime urban heat island effect in high-rise and high-density residential developments in Hong Kong," Energy and Buildings, vol. 36, pp. 525-534, 2004.
[11] Jusuf S. K. & Wong N. H., "Study on air temperature distribution and its correlation with sky view factorin a green Singapore estate," in Seventh International Conference on Urban Climate, Yokohama, Japan, 2009.
[12] Das. Y. & Padmanabhamurty. B., "Energy balance of a suburban vegetated area in a tropical city-Delhi, India," Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, vol. 50, pp. 103-110, 2008.
[13] Gallo K. P. and Tarpley J. D., "The comparison of vegetation index and surface temperature composites for urban heat island analysis," International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 17/15, pp. 3071– 3076, 1996.
[14] Chauhan H. B. and Nayak S., "Land use/ Land cover changes near Hazira region, Gujarat using Remote Sensing satellite data," Journal of the Indian Society of Rempte Sensing, pp. 413-420, 2005.
[15] Van de Griend A. A. and Owe M., "On the relationship between thermal emissivity and the normalized difference vegetation index for natural surfaces," Int. J. Remote Sens., vol. 14, pp. 1119–1131, 2003.
[16] Liu L. & Zhang Y., "Urban Heat Island Analysis Using the Landsat T. M Data and ASTER Data: A Case Study in Hong Kong," Remote sensing, pp. 1535-1552, 2011.
[17] Oke T. & Stewart. I. D., "Classifying Urban Climate Field Sites by Local Climate Zones the case of Nagano,Japan," in 7th International Conference on Urban Climate, Yokohama,Japan, 2009.
[18] Mohan M. et al., "Urban Heat Island Assessment for a Tropical Urban Airshed in India," Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, pp. 127-138, 2012.
[19] Sunar F., "Analysis of changes in a multidate set: a case study in Ikitelli Area, Istanbul, Turkey," International Journal of Remote Sensing, pp. 225–235, 1998.
[20] Madhavan B. B. Kubo S. Kurisaki N. & Sivakumar T. V. L. N., "Appraising the anatomy and spatial growth of the Bangkok Metropolitan area using a vegetation impervious-soil model through remote sensing," International Journal of Remote Sensing, pp. 789–806, 2001.
[21] Kolokotroni M. & Giridharan R., "Urban heat island intensity in London: An investigation of the impact of physical characteristics on changes in outdoor air temperature during summer," Solar Energy, vol. 82, pp. 986-998, 2008.
[22] Kotharkar R. & Surawar M., "Land Use, Land Cover, and Population Density Impact on the Formation of Canopy Urban Heat Islands through Traverse Survey in the Nagpur Urban Area," Journal of Urban Planning and Development, ASCE, vol. 142(1) , 2015.
[23] C. N., & Aniya, M., Mundia, "Analysis of land use/coverchanges and urban expansion in Nairobi city using remote sensing and GIS," International Journal of Remote Sensing, pp. 2831–2849, 2005.
[24] Stone B. J. and Norman J. M., "Land Use Planning and Surface Heat Island Formation: A Parcel-Based Radiation Flux Approach" Atmospheric Environment, vol. 40, pp. 3561–3573, 2006.
[25] Humayun Sarkar, "Study of Landcover and Population Density Influences on Urban Heat Island in Tropical Cities by Using Remote Sensing and GIS:A Methodological Consideration," in 3rd FIG Regional Conference, Jakarta, Indonesia, 2004.
[26] Ansar S., "A Study of Urban/Rural Cooling Rates in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala," J. Ind. Geophys. Union, vol. 16, pp. 29-36, 2012.
[27] Devi S. S., "Urban Heat Islands and Environmental Impact, Visakhapatnam," 2007.
[28] Rose A. L.& Devadas M. D., "Effects of changing Landuse patterns on Urban heat island in Chennai," in The 2005 World Sustainable building Conference, Tokyo, 2005, pp. 3949-3942.
[29] Katpatal Y. B., "Surface- and Air-Temperature Studies in Relation toLand Use/Land Cover of Nagpur Urban Area Using Landsat 5 TM Data," Journal of urban planning and development, pp. 110-118, 2008.
[30] Sudhira H. S. and Ramachandra T. V. & Jagadish K. S., "Urban sprawl: metrics, dynamics and modelling using GIS," International Journal of Earth observation and Geoinformation, pp. 29-39, 2004.
[31] Badarinath K. V. S. et al., "Studies on Urban Heat Islands Using ENVISAT AATSR Data Hydrabad," Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, pp. 495-501, 2005.
[32] Weng Q. and Dendsheng L., "Estimation of Land Surface Temperature-vegetation abundance relationship for Urban Heat Island studies," Remote sensig of environment, vol. 89, pp. 467-483, 2004.
[33] Mohan M. et al., "Urban Heat Island Effect over National Capital Region of India: A Study using the Temperature Trends," Journal of Environmental Protection, pp. 465-472, 2011a.
[34] Mohan M. et al., "Dynamics of Urbanization and Its Impact on Land-Use/Land-Cover: A Case Study of Megacity Delhi," Journal of Environmental Protection, pp. 1274-1283, 2011b.
[35] A. P., Cracknell, "Synergy in remote sensing- What's in a pixel?" International journal of remote sensing, pp. 2025-2047, 1998.
[36] Zhang J. Wang Y. & Li Y., "AC++ program for retrieving land surface temperature from the data of Landsat TM/ ETM Band6," Computers & Geosciences, pp. 1796-1805, 2006.
[37] Qin Z al., "Mono-window algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature from Landsat TM 6 data" Acta Georgr. Sinica, vol. 56, pp. 456-466, 2001.
[38] Li C. F. and Yin J. Y., "A Study on urban thermal field of Shanghai using multi-source Remote Sensing data," Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, pp. 1009-1019, 2013.
[39] Landsat Project Science Office, Landsat 7 Science Data Users Handbook, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center ed. Greenbelt, Maryland: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.