Impact of Long Term Application of Municipal Solid Waste on Physicochemical and Microbial Parameters and Heavy Metal Distribution in Soils in Accordance to Its Agricultural Uses
Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), being a rich source of organic materials, can be used for agricultural applications as an important source of nutrients for soil and plants. This is also an alternative beneficial management practice for MSW generated in developing countries. In the present study, MSW treated soil samples from last four to six years at farmer’s field in Rohtak and Gurgaon states (Haryana, India) were collected. The samples were analyzed for all-important agricultural parameters and compared with the control untreated soil samples. The treated soil at farmer’s field showed increase in total N by 48 to 68%, P by 45.7 to 51.3%, and K by 60 to 67% compared to untreated soil samples. Application of sewage sludge at different sites led to increase in microbial biomass C by 60 to 68% compared to untreated soil. There was significant increase in total Cu, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb, and Zn in all sewage sludge amended soil samples; however, concentration of all the metals were still below the current permitted (EU) limits. To study the adverse effect of heavy metals accumulation on various soil microbial activities, the sewage sludge samples (from wastewater treatment plant at Gurgaon) were artificially contaminated with heavy metal concentration above the EU limits. They were then applied to soil samples with different rates (0.5 to 4.0%) and incubated for 90 days under laboratory conditions. The samples were drawn at different intervals and analyzed for various parameters like pH, EC, total N, P, K, microbial biomass C, carbon mineralization, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) exactable heavy metals. The results were compared to the uncontaminated sewage sludge. The increasing level of sewage sludge from 0.5 to 4% led to build of organic C and total N, P and K content at the early stages of incubation. But, organic C was decreased after 90 days because of decomposition of organic matter. Biomass production was significantly increased in both contaminated and uncontaminated sewage soil samples, but also led to slight increases in metal accumulation and their bioavailability in soil. The maximum metal concentrations were found in treatment with 4% of contaminated sewage sludge amendment.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130611Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1059
 A.E. Ghaly, and F.N. Alkoaik, “Effect of Municipal Solid Waste Compost on the Growth and Production of Vegetable Crops,” American Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences, vol. 5 (3), pp. 274-281, 2010.
 J. C.Garcı0a-Gil , C. Plaza , P. Soler-Rovira, and A. Polo, “Long term effects of municipal solid waste compost application on soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass,” Soil Biol Biochem, vol. 32, pp. 1907–1913, 2000a.
 A.S.F. Araujo, W. Josede. Melo, and R. P. Singh, “Municipal solid waste compost amendment in agricultural soil: changes in soil microbial biomass”, Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol, vol. 9, pp. 41–49, 2010.
 World Bank,” What a Waste: Solid Waste Management in Asia,” Urban and Local Government Working Paper Series number 1. Washington, DC: World Bank, 1999.
 L. C. Roca-Pérez, C. Martínez, P. Marcilla, R. Boluda, “ Compost rice straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil-plant system.” Chemosphere, vol. 75, pp. 781–787, 2009.
 D. Baldantoni, A. Leone, P. Iovieno, L. Morra, M. Zaccardelli, and A. Alfani, “Total and available soil trace element concentrations in two Mediterranean agricultural systems treated with municipal waste compost or conventional mineral fertilizers,” Chemosphere, vol. 80, pp.1006–1013, 2010.
 J. Y. Liu, and S.Sun, “Total concentrations and different fractions of heavy metals in sewage sludge from Guangzhou, China,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, vol. 23, pp.2397−2407, 2013.
 V. Antoniadis, C.D. Tsadilas, and V. Samaras, “Trace element availability in a sewage sludge-amended cotton grown Mediterranean soil,” Chemosphere, vol. 80(11), pp.1308−1313, 2010.
 C. Yang, X. Z. Meng, L. Chen, and S.Q. Xia,“ Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge from Shanghai, China Possible ecological risk applied to agricultural land,” Chemosphere, vol. 85(3), pp.418−423, 2011.
 P. Oleszczuk, and H. Hollert, “Comparison of sewage sludge toxicity to plants and invertebrates in three different soils,” Chemosphere, vol. 83(4), pp. 502−509, 2011.
 G. Carbonell, R. M. Imperial, M. Torrijos, M. Delgado, and J. A. Rodriguez. “Effects of municipal solid waste compost and mineral fertilizer amendments on soil properties and heavy metals distribution in maize plants (Zea mays L.),” Chemosphere, vol. 85, pp. 1614-1623, 2011.
 V. Antoniadis, J. S. Robinson, and B. J. Alloway, “ Effects of short-term pH fluctuations on cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc availability to ryegrass in a sewage sludge-amended field,” Chemosphere, vol. 71(4), pp. 759−764, 2008.
 E. Dolsch, B. Deroche, V. V. D. Kerchove, “Impact of sewage sludge spreading on heavy metal speciation in tropical soils,” Chemosphere, vol. 65(2), pp. 286−293, 2006.
 P. S. Kidd, M. J. Domínguez-Rodríguez, J. Díez, C. Monterroso, “Bioavailability and plant accumulation of heavy metals and phosphorus in agricultural soils amended by long-term application of sewage sludge,” Chemosphere, vol. 66(8), pp. 1458−1467, 2007.
 S.J. Kalembassa, and D.S. Jenkinson, “A comparative study of titrimetric and gravimetric methods for the determination of organic carbon in soil,” Sci. Food Agricultural, vol. 24, pp. 1089-1090, 1973.
 E.D. Vance, P.C. Brookes, and D.S. Jenkinson, “An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C,” Soil Biol. Biochem. Vol. 19, pp. 703-707, 1987.
 J.M. Bremner, “Total nitrogen. In: Method of Soil Analysis. (ed. Black, C.A.), published by American Society of Agronomy, Madison, vol. 2, pp. 1149-1178. 1965.
 D.R. Keeney, and J.M. Bremner, “Comparison and evaluation of laboratory methods of obtaining an index of soil nitrogen availability,” Agron. J. vol. 58, pp. 498-503, 1965.
 M.K. John, “Colorimetric determination of phosphorus in soil and plant materials with ascorbic acid,” Soil Sci, vol. 109, pp. 214-220, 1970.
 S.R. Olsen, C.V. Cole, F. S. Watanbe, and L. A. Dean, “Estimation of available phosphours in soil by extraction with sodium bicarbonate,” U.S. Department of Agricultural Circular, 139, 1954.
 S, P. McGrath, and C. H. Cunliffe, “A simplified method for extraction of the metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co and Mn from soils and sewage sludges,” Sci. Food Agricultural, vol. 36, pp. 794-798, 1985.
 W.L. Lindsay, and W.A. Norvell, “Development of a DTPA soil test for Zn, Fe, Mn and Cu,” Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. vol. 42, pp. 421-428, 1978.
 L.E. Casida, D.A. Klein, and R. Santoro, “Soil dehydrogenase activity,” Soil Sci. vol. 98, pp. 371-376, 1964.
 M.A. Tabatabai, and J.M. Bremner, “Use of p-nitrophenyl phosphate for assay of soil phosphatase activity,” Soil Biol. Biochem. Vol. 1, pp. 301-307, 1969.
 J.M. Bremner, and R.L. Mulvaney, “Urease activity in soils. In: Soil Enzymes (ed. Burns, R.G.),” pp. 149-196. Academic Press, London. 1978.
 K. Usman, S. Khan, S. Ghulam, M. U. Khan, N. Khan, M. A. Khan, and S. K. Khalil, “Sewage Sludge: An Important Biological Resource for Sustainable Agriculture and Its Environmental Implications,” American Journal of Plant Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 1708-1721, 2012.
 G. Kandpal, B. Ram, P.C. Srivastava, and S.K. Singh, “Effect of metal spiking on different chemical pools and chemically extractable fractions of heavy metals in sewage sludge,” J. Hazard Mater. vol. 106, pp. 133-137, 2004.
 S.M. Zain, H. Basri, F. Suja, and O. Jaafar, “Land application technique for the treatment and disposal of sewage sludge,” Water Sci. Technol. Vol. 46, pp. 303-308, 2002.
 D.A. Abaye, K. Lawlor, P. R. Hirsch, and P. C. Brookes, “Changes in the microbial community of an arable soil caused by long-term metal contamination,” European. J. Soil Sci. vol. 56, pp. 93-102, 2005.
 P.H. Kao, C. C. Huang, and Z. Y. Hseu, “Response of microbial activities to heavy metals in a neutral loamy soil treated with biosolid,” Chemosphere, vol. 64, pp. 63-70, 2006.
 E. G. Gregorich, M. R. Carter, D. A. Angers, C. M. Monreall, and B. H. Ellert, “Towards a minimum data set to assess soil organic-matter quality in agricultural soils,” Can J Soil Sci, vol. 74, pp. 367–385, 1994.
 B.E. Udom, J.S. Mbagwu, J.K. Adesodun, and N.N. Agbim, “Distributions of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in a tropical ultisol after long-term disposal of sewage sludge,” Environ. Int. vol.30, pp. 467-470. 2004.
 E.A. Dayton, N. T. Basta, M. E. Payton, K.D. Bradham, I.L. Schroder, and R. P. Lanno, “Evaluating the contribution of soil properties to modifying lead phytoavailability and phytotoxicity,” Environ. Toxicol. Chem. Vol. 25, pp. 719-725, 2006.
 Wazir Chand, “Relative toxicity of zinc, copper, nickel and cadmium to wheat crop in sludge treated and untreated soils,” M.Sc. Thesis, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India. 1991.
 D.D Singha, “Nitrogen transformation and its availability to wheat in soil amended with Zn, Cd and Ni enriched sewage sludge,” Ph.D. Thesis. CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar, Haryana, India. 1995.
 K.C. Banger, K. K. Kapoor, and M. M Mishra, “Soil microbial biomass: Its measurement and as a nutrient source: A review,” Indian J. Microbiol. Vol. 30, pp. 263-278, 1990.
 H. Insam, C.C. Mitchell, and J.F. Dormaar, “Relationship of soil microbial biomass and activity with fertilization practice and crop yield of three ultisols,” Soil Biol. Biochem. Vol. 23, pp. 459-464, 1991.
 R. Martens, “Current methods for measuring microbial biomass C in soil: Potentials and limitations,” Biol. Fertil. Soils, vol. 19, pp. 87-99, 1995.
 S. Goyal, K. Inubushi, S. Kato, H.L. Xu, and H. Umemura, “Effect of anaerobically fermented manure on soil organic matter, microbial properties and growth of spinach under greenhouse conditions,” Indian J. Microbiol. Vol. 39, pp. 211-216, 1999.
 T. Kunito, K. Saeki, S. Goto, H. Hayashi, H. Oyaizu, and S. Matsumoto, “Copper and zinc fractions affecting microorganisms in long-term sludge amended soils,” Bioresour. Technol. Vol. 79, pp. 135-146, 2001.
 M. Zaman, M. Matsushima, S. X. Chang, K. Inubushi, L. Nguyen, S. Goto, F. Kaneko, and T. Yoneyama, “Nitrogen mineralization, N2O production and soil microbiological properties as affected by long-term applications of sewage sludge composts,” Biol. Fertil. Soils, vol.40, pp. 101-109, 2004.
 S.Y. Selivanovskaya, and V.Z. Latypova, “Effects of composted sewage sludge on microbial biomass, activity and pine seedlings in nursery forest,” Waste Manag. Vol. 26, pp. 1253-1258, 2006.
 A.M. Barajas, “Comparison of different microbial biomass and activity measurement methods in metal contaminated soils,” Bioresour. Technol. Vol.96, pp. 1405-1414, 2005.
 C. Garcıa, T. Hernandez, F. Costa, B. Ceccanti, “Biochemical parameters in soil regenerated by addition of organic wastes,” Waste Management and Research, vol. 12, pp. 457–466, 1994.
 C. Marzadori, C., Ciavatta, D. Montecchio, and C. Gessa, “Effects of lead pollution on different soil enzyme activities,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, vol. 22, pp. 53–58, 1996.
 K. Chander, and P. C. Brookes, “Is the dehydrogenase assay invalid as a method to estimate microbial activity in copper-contaminated soils,” Soil Biology & Biochemistry, vol. 23, pp. 909–915, 1991.
 G. Tyler, “Heavy metal pollution and enzymatic activit,” Plant and Soil, vol.41, pp. 303–310, 1974.
 P. Nannipieri, F. Pechozzini, P.G. Arcada, and C. Pioranelli, “Changes in amino acids, enzyme activities and biomass during soil microbial growth,” Soil Science, vol. 127, pp. 26–34, 1979.
 C.A. Campbell, S. A. Brandt, R.P. Zentner, V.O. Biederbeck, and M. Schnitzer, “Effect of crop rotation on soil organic matter characteristics of a dark brown chernozem,” Can. J. Soil Sci. vol. 72, pp. 429-439,1992.
 B.S. Griffiths, P.D. Hallett, H. L. Kuan, Y. Pitkin, and M. N. Aitken, “Biological and physical resilience of soil amended with heavy metal contaminated sewage sludge,” European J. Soil Sci. vol. 56, pp. 197-205, 2005.
 J.W.C. Wong, K.M. Lai, M. Fang, and K.K. Ma, “Soil biology of low grade landfill soil with sewage sludge amendment,” Environ. Technol. Vol. 21, pp. 1233-1238, 2000.