A Review on Application of Phase Change Materials in Textiles Finishing
Fabric as the first and most common layer that is in permanent contact with human skin is a very good interface to provide coverage, as well as heat and cold insulation. Phase change materials (PCMs) are organic and inorganic compounds which have the capability of absorbing and releasing noticeable amounts of latent heat during phase transitions between solid and liquid phases at a low temperature range. PCMs come across phase changes (liquid-solid and solid-liquid transitions) during absorbing and releasing thermal heat; so, in order to use them for a long time, they should have been encapsulated in polymeric shells, so-called microcapsules. Microencapsulation and nanoencapsulation methods have been developed in order to reduce the reactivity of a PCM with outside environment, promoting the ease of handling, decreasing the diffusion and evaporation rates. Methods of incorporation of PCMs in textiles such as electrospinning and determining thermal properties had been summarized. Paraffin waxes catch a lot of attention due to their high thermal storage density, repeatability of phase change, thermal stability, small volume change during phase transition, chemical stability, non-toxicity, non-flammability, non-corrosive and low cost and they seem to play a key role in confronting with climate change and global warming. In this article, we aimed to review the researches concentrating on the characteristics of PCMs and new materials and methods of microencapsulation.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130575Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1327
 G. Erkan, “Enhancing The Thermal Properties of Textiles With Phase Change Materials” in RJTA, 8(2), 2004, 57-64.
 S. Mondal, “Phase change materials for smart textiles – An overview” in Applied Thermal Engineering, 28, 2008, 1536–1550.
 N. Bhardwaj, S. C. Kundu, “Electrospinning: a fascinating fiber fabrication technique” in Biotechnol. Adv., 28, 2010, 325–347.
 J. T. McCann, M. Marquez, Y. N. Xia “Melt coaxial electrospinning: a versatile method for the encapsultion of solid materials and fabrication of phase change nanofibers” in Nano Lett., 6, 2006, 2868–2872.
 C. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Huang, “Electrospinning of thermo-regulating ultrafine fibers based on polyethylene glycol/cellulose acetate composite” in Polymer, 48(18), 2007, 5202–5207.
 T. T. T. Nguyen, J. S. Park, “Fabrication of electrospun nonwoven mats of polyvinylidene fluoride/polyethylene glycol/fumed silica for use as energy storage materials” in J. Appl. Polym. Sci, 121, 2011, 3596–3603.
 C. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Huang, “Morphology and thermal properties of electrospun fatty acids/polyethylene terephthalate composite fibers as novel form-stable phase change materials” in Sol. Energ. Mater. Sol. C, 92, 2008, 1382–1387.
 C. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Huang, “Electrospinning, a novel shape-stabilized PCM: electrospun ultrafine fibers based on lauric acid/polyethylene terephthalate composite” in Mater. Lett., 62, 2008, 3515–3517.
 C. Chen, L. Wang, Y. Huang, “Ultrafine electrospun fibers based on stearyl stearate/polyethylene terepthalate composite as form stable phase change materials” in Chem. Eng. J., 150, 2009, 269–274.
 Y. Cai, H. Ke, J. Dong, Q. Wei, J. Lin, Y. Zhao, L. Song, Y. Hu, F. Huang, W. Gao, H. Fong, “Effects of nano-SiO2 on morphology, thermal energy storage, thermal stability, and combustion properties of electrospun lauric acid/PET ultrafine composite fibers as form-stable phase change materials” in Appl. Energ., 88(6), 2011, 2106–2112.
 C. Chen, S. Liu, W. Liu, Y. Zhao, Y. Lu, “Synthesis of novel solid–liquid phase change materials and electrospinning of ultrafine phase change fibers” in Sol. Energ. Mater. Sol. C, 96, 2012, 202–209.
 Y. G. Bryant, D. P. Colvin, “Fabric with reversible enhanced thermal properties” in US Patent, 5,366,807, 1994, available from http://patft.uspto.gov/.
 Y. G. Bryant, D. P. Colvin, “Moldable foam insole with reversible enhanced thermal storage properties” in US Patent, 5,499,460, 1996, available from http://patft.uspto.gov/.
 D. P. Colvin, Y. G. Bryant, “Thermally enhanced foam insulation” in US Patent, 5,637,389, 1997, available from http://patft.uspto.gov/.
 D. P. Colvin, Y. G. Bryant, J. C. Driscoll, J. C. Mulligan, “Thermal insulating coating employing microencapsulated phase change material and method” in US Patent, 5,804,297, 1998, available from http://patft.uspto.gov/.
 M. L. Nuckols, “Analytical modeling of a diver dry suit enhanced with microencapsulated phase change material” in Ocean Eng., 26, 1999, 547-564.
 R. Painter, “Impregnation of leather with micro-encapsulated material” in PCT patent application, WO0065100A1, 2000.
 D. K. Robinson, J. J. Erickson, M. Redwood, “Leather impregnated with temperature stabilizing material and method for producing such leather” in US Patent, 6,179,879, 2001, available from http://patft.uspto.gov/.
 I. Renzi, C. Carfagna, P. Persico, “Thermoregulated natural leather using phase change materials: an example of bioinspiration” Appl. Therm. Eng., 30, 2010, 1369-1376.
 V. Colvin, D. Colvin, “Microclimate temperature regulating pad and products made there from” in US Patent, 6,298,907, 2001, available from http://patft.uspto.gov/.
 J. K. Choi, J. G. Lee, J. H. Kim, H. S. Yang, “Preparation of microcapsules containing phase change materials as heat transfer media by in-situ polymerization” in J. Ind. Eng. Chem., 7, 2001, 358-362.
 W. Lee, “Microcapsule containing phase change material and article having same.” in PCT patent application, WO02053370A1, 2002.
 M. Rock, V. Sharma, “Heating/warming textile articles with phase change components” in US Patent, 20020086204A1, 2002, available from http://patft.uspto.gov/.
 M.L. Nuckols, “Analytical modeling of a diver dry suit enhanced with microencapsulated phase change material” in Ocean Eng., 26, 1999, 547-564.
 H. Shim, E. A. McCullough, B. W. Jones, “Using phase change materials in clothing” in Text. Res. J., 71(6), 2001, 495-502.
 M. You, X. X. Zhang, W. Li, X. C. Wang, “Effects of MicroPCMs on the fabrication of MicroPCMs/polyurethane composite foams” in Thermochim. Acta, 472, 2008, 20-24.
 M. You, X. X. Zhang, J. P. Wang, X. C. Wang, “Polyurethane foam containing microencapsulated phase–change materials with styrene–divinylbenzene co–polymer shells” in J Mater Sci,44, 2009, 3141-3147.
 M. You, X. X. Zhang, X. C. Wang, W. Li, W. Wen, “Effects of type and contents of microencapsuled n-alkanes on properties of soft polyurethane foams” in Thermochim. Acta, 500, 2010, 69-75.
 T. L. Vigo, C. M. Frost, “Temperature adaptable fabrics” in Text. Res. J., 55, 1985, 737-743.
 T. L. Vigo, J. S. Bruno, “Temperature adaptable textiles” in Text. Res. J., 57, 1987, 427-429.
 T. L. Vigo, J. S. Bruno, “Thermal analysis of fibrous substrates containing crosslinked polyols” in Thermochim. Acta, 161 (2), 1990, 339-351.
 W. R. Goynes, T. L. Vigo, J. S. Burno, “Microstructure of fabrics chemically finished for thermal adaptability” in Text. Res. J., 60, 1990, 277-284.
 P. R. Gruber, J. J. Kolstad, C. M. Ryan, R. S. Eichen Conn, E. S. Hall, “Melt-stable lactide polymer nonwoven fabric and process for manufacture thereof” in US Patent, 6,355,772, 2002, available from http://patft.uspto.gov/.
 A. Khoddami, O. Avinc, F. Ghahremanzadeh, “Improvement in poly(lactic acid) fabric performance via hydrophilic coating” in Prog. Org. Coat., 2(3), 2011, 299-304.
 M. Telkes, E. Raymond, “Storing solar heat in chemicals—a report on the Doverhouse” in Heat Vent, 46(11), 1949, 80-86.
 T. L. Vigo, C.M. Frost, “Temperature-adaptable hollow fibers containing polyethylene glycols” in J. Coated Fabrics, 12, 1983, 243-254.
 Y. F. Fan, X. X. Zhang, S. Z. Wu, X. C. Wang, “Thermal stability and permeability of microencapsulated n-octadecane and cyclohexane” in Thermochim. Acta, 429, 2005, 25-29.
 J. Hu, H. Yu, Y. Chen, M. Zhu, “Study on phase-change characteristics of PET–PEG co-polymers” in J. Macromol. Sci. B, 45(4), 2006, 615-621.
 Q. Meng, J. Hu, “A poly(ethylene glycol)-based smart phase change material” in Sol. Energ. Mater. Sol. C, 92, 2008, 1260-1268.
 F. Ghahremanzadeh, A. Khoddami, C. M. Carr, “Improvement in fastness properties of phase-change material applied on surface modified wool fabrics” in Fiber Polym.,11(8), 2010, 1170-1180.
 A. Nihlstrand, I. Gabrielii, B. Hagström, “Multi-component fibers” in US Pat. Appl., 20110027568, 2011, available from http://www.freepatentsonline.com/.
 M. T. I. Mollah, “Experimental study on temperature regulating bi-component fibres containing paraffin wax in the core”, Report no.: 2009.7.2, MS Thesis, The Swedish School of Textiles, University of Boras, 2009, 23.