Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30761
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy
Abstract:Human Immunodeficiency Virus is known to affect almost all organ systems in the body. In addition to central nervous system it also affects the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic nervous dysfunction has been known to severely affect the quality of life in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients. It is known to have caused fatal consequences in late stages of the disease in patients who go in for invasive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The aim of this review is to determine the incidence, clinical significance and frequency of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in patients human immunodeficiency virus infection.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130523Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 644
 Braunwald E B, Mann D L, Lipes D P, Libby P. Braunwald’s Heart Disease. A textbook of cardiovascular medicine: Cardiac autonomic dysfunction; 9th Edition. St Louis. Saunders Co.2012.2245-2278
 Becker K, Gorlach I, Frieling T, Hausinger D. Characterisation and natural course of cardiac dysfunction in HIV. AIDS. 1997; 11(6):751-757
 Ganong W. Ganong’s review of medical physiology: Autonomic nervous system.24th Edition. New York. Lange Medical Books/ McGraw- Hill.2011.576-592
 Mathias C J, Frankel H L. In autonomic failure- A text book of clinical disorders of ANS. London.Oxford.1983; 453.
 Landburg J M, Hokfelt I, Bousfield, D. Neurotransmitters in action. Elsevier. Amsterdam.1987; 104.
 Bannister R, Oppenheimer D. Brain-Autonomic dysfunction. London. Elsevier. 1972; 95: 457.
 Johnson R H, Lambe D G, Spalding J M. The neurocardiology, the inter relationships between dysfunction in the nervous and cardiovascular system. Saunders, London, 1984; 177.
 Johnson R. H., Spalding JM. The nervous control of circulation and its investigations. In disorders of autonomic nervous systems. Oxford: Blackwell scientific publication: 1974; 33-58.
 Polinky R J, Bannister R. In autonomic failure: A text book of clinical disorders of the ANS Oxford. Elsevier. 1986.10985; 201.
 Shy G N, Drager G A. Achieves of neurology - Autonomic dysfunction. London. Lange Medical Books.1960; 2:511.
 Hall J E, Guyton A C .Guyton and hall textbook of medical physiology: Autonomic nervous system .12th Edition. Philadelphia. Elsevier’s Saunders. 2011.346-367.
 Goetz C G, Pappert E J.Textbook of clinical neurology: Autonomic Nervous System. Philadelphia. W B Saunders Co.2008.567-574.
 Valcour V, Sithinamsuwan P, Letendre S, Ances B. Pathogenesis of HIV in the Central Nervous System. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2011 Mar; 8(1):54-61.
 Ellis R, Langford D, Masliah E.HIV and antiretroviral therapy in the brain neuronal injury and repair. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2007 Jan; 8(1):33-44. 27.
 Guha D, Nagilla P, Redinger C et al. Neuronal apoptosis by HIV-1 Vpr: contribution of proinflammatory molecular networks from infected target cells. J Neuroinflammation.2012;9:138
 Richard W P: Neurological complication of HIV infection.Lancet.1996; 348:445-452.
 Sharma SK, Tamilarasu K, Amith B, Tarun G, Indrish B, Study of clinical disease in a series of 135 hospitalised HIV infected North India; BMC infection diseases.2004; 1-9.
 Harouse J M, Wroblewska Z, Lauglin M. Human choroid plexus cells can be latently infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Ann Neurol .1989; 25:406-411.
 Tyor W, Glass E D, Griffin J W. Cytokine expression in the brain during the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Ann Neurol .1992; 31:349-360.
 Vazeux R, Lacroix-Ciaudo C, Blanche S et al. Low levels of human immunodeficiency virus replication in the brain tissue of children with severe acquired immunodeficiency syndrome encephalopathy. Am J Pathol. 1992; 140:137-144.
 Dawson V L, Dawson T M, Uhi G R, Snyder S. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coat protein neurotoxicity mediated by nitric oxide in primary cortical cultures. Proc Natl Acad SCi.1993; 90:3256-3259
 Genis P, Jett M, Bernton E W .Cytokines and Arachidonic Metabolites Produced during Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected Macrophage-Astroglia Interactions: Implications for the Neuro-pathogenesis of HIV Disease. Jexp Med .1992 Dec; 176:1703-1718.
 Luma H N, Tchaleu B N, Doualla M S. HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in HIV-1 infected patients at the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon: a cross sectional study. AIDS Res Ther 2012; 9:35.
 Rogstad K, Shah R, Tesfaladet G, Abdullah M, Ahmed-Jusuf I et al. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in HIV infected patients. Sex Transm Inf. 1999; 95:264-267.
 Mittal CM, Wig N, Mishra S, Deepak K K. Heart rate variability in human immunodeficiency virus positive individuals. Int J Cardiol. 2004; 94(1): 1-6.
 Nzubontane D, Ngu B K. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in Africans infected with HIV. J R Soc Med. 2002; 95:445- 447.
 Ruttiman S, Hilti P, Sinas G A, Dubach U C. High frequency of HIV associated Autonomic neuropathy and more severe neuropathy in advanced HIV. Arch Intern Med .1991; 151:2441-2443.
 Freeman R, Robert M S, Fruednab U S, Briadbrudge C. Autonomic function and HIV Virus. Neurology. 1990; 40:575-580.
 Cohen J A, Miller L, Polish L. Orthostatic hypotension in human immunodeficiency virus infection may be the result of regeneralized autonomic nervous system dysfunction. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991; 4(1):31-33.
 Kelbfleisch J H. Evaluation of the heart rate response to Valsalva maneuver. Am heart J 1995; (6): 707-715.
 Ewin D J. The value of cardiovascular autonomic function test 10 years experience in diabetes. Diabetes care, 1995; 8(5): 491-498.
 Levin A B. A simple test of cardiac function based on the heart rate changes induced by Valsalva maneuver. Am J Cardiol.1966; 18: 90-99.
 Mathias C, Bannister R. Testing autonomic reflexes- Autonomic failure. Oxford. Oxford University Press. 1992; 2390-2404.
 Low P A, Benanoch E E.Clinical autonomic disorders: Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction. 3rd Edition. Philadelphia. Lippincott; Williams and Williams.2008; 256.
 Ewing D J, Clarke B F. Management of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. BMJ.1982 Oct; 285: 916-918.
 Edvinosson L, Uddman R, Kalser S. In trends in autonomic pharmacology. London. McGraw Hill company.1985; 225.
 Murthy J K. Pathophysiology and treatment of neurogenic orthostatic hypotension progression in clinical neurosciences. Calcutta. 1987; 1:81-87.
 Raymond D. ADAMS: Autonomic nervous system in principles of neurology. London. McGraw Hill Company. IV edition.1985; 422-445.
 Warkins. PJ, Edmonds ME. Textbook of Neurology: In autonomic failure .Oxford. Oxford University Press, 1983; 337.