Assessment of Material Type, Diameter, Orientation and Closeness of Fibers in Vulcanized Reinforced Rubbers
In this work, the effect of material type, diameter, orientation and closeness of fibers on the general performance of reinforced vulcanized rubbers are investigated using finite element method with experimental verification. Various fiber materials such as hemp, nylon, polyester are used for different fiber diameters, orientations and closeness. 3D finite element models are developed by considering bonded contact elements between fiber and rubber sheet interfaces. The fibers are assumed as linear elastic, while vulcanized rubber is considered as hyper-elastic. After an experimental verification of finite element results, the developed models are analyzed under prescribed displacement that causes tension. The normal stresses in fibers and shear stresses between fibers and rubber sheet are investigated in all models. Large deformation of reinforced rubber sheet also represented with various fiber conditions under incremental loading. A general assessment is achieved about best fiber properties of reinforced rubber sheets for tension-load conditions.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130499Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 567
 J. Moraleda, J. Segurado, J. LLorca, “Finite deformation of incompressible fiber-reinforced elastomers: A computational micromechanics approach”, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 57, pp. 1596–1613, 2009.
 O. Lopez-Pamies, P. Ponte Castañeda, “On the overall behavior, microstructure evolution, and macroscopic stability in reinforced rubbers at large deformations: I—Theory”, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 54, pp. 807-830, 2006.
 J. Moraleda, J. Segurado, J. LLorca, “Effect of interface fracture on the tensile deformation of fiber-reinforced elastomers”, International Journal of Solids and Structures, vol. 46, pp. 4287–4297, 2009.
 S. S. Choi, J. H. Jang, S. B. Lee, W. J. Jang, J. S. Oh et al., “Circular deformation as a means of simultaneously evaluating the compressive and tensile strain in vulcanized rubber”, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, vol. 15, pp. 641–644, 2009.
 B. Fereidoonnezhad, R. Naghdabadi, J. Arghavani, “A hyperelastic constitutive model for fiber-reinforced rubber-like materials”, International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 71, pp. 36-44, 2013.
 A. F. Cheviakov, J.-F. Ganghoffer, S. St. Jean, “Fully non-linear wave models in fiber-reinforced anisotropic incompressible hyperelastic solids”, International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, vol. 71, pp. 8-21, 2015.
 M. Agoras, O. Lopez-Pamies, P. Ponte Castaneda, “A general hyperelastic model for incompressible fiber-reinforced elastomers”, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids, vol. 57, pp. 268-286, 2009.
 H. Hariharaputhiran, U. Saravanan, “A new set of biaxial and uniaxial experiments on vulcanized rubber and attempts at modeling it using classical hyperelastic models”, Mechanics of Materials, vol. 92, pp. 211-222, 2015.
 O. Lopez-Pamies, “A new l_1-based hyperelastic model for rubber elastic materials”, Comptes Rendus Mecanique, vol. 338, pp. 3-11, 2010.
 M. S. Gadala, “Alternative methods for the solution of hyperelastic problems wıth incompressibility”, Computers and Structures, vol. 42, pp. 1-10, 1992.
 S. Sharma, “Effect of coir fiber reinforcement on mechanical properties of vulcanized natural rubber composites”, Science and Engineering of Composite Materials, 2016.
 M. R. Kashani, “Aramid-short-fiber reinforced rubber as a tire tread composite”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 113, pp. 1355-1363, 2009.
 F. C. Chiu, S. W. Fu, W. T. Chuang, H. S. Sheu, “Fabrication and characterization of polyamide 6,6/organo-montmorillonite nanocomposites with and without a maleated polyolefin elastomer as a toughener”, Polymer, vol. 49, pp. 1015-1026, 2008.
 E. Ozen, A. Kiziltas, E. E. Kiziltas, D. J. Gardner, “Natural Fiber Blend-Nylon 6 Composites”, Polymer Composites, pp. 544-553, 2013.
 S. Ramakrishnan, K. Krishnamurthy, M. M. Prasath, R. Sarath Kumar, M. Dharmaraj et al., “Theoretical prediction on the mechanical behavior of natural fiber reinforced vinyl Ester Composites”, Applied Science and Advanced Materials International, vol. 1 (3), pp. 85 – 92, 2015.
 M. Hughes, J. Carpenter, C. Hill, “Deformation and fracture behaviour of flax fibre reinforced thermosetting polymer matrix composites”, J Mater Sci 42:2499–2511, 2007.
 http://web.mit.edu/course/3/3.11/www/modules/props.pdf (24/04/2017).
 http://www.goodfellow.com/E/Polyamide-Nylon-6.html (24/04/2017).
 http://www.professionalplastics.com/professionalplastics/MechanicalPropertiesofPlastics.pdf (24/04/2017).
 ANSYS Workbench, Material Library.