Creating Smart and Healthy Cities by Exploring the Potentials of Emerging Technologies and Social Innovation for Urban Efficiency: Lessons from the Innovative City of Boston
The wide-spread adoption of the Smart City concept has introduced a new era of computing paradigm with opportunities for city administrators and stakeholders in various sectors to re-think the concept of urbanization and development of healthy cities. With the world population rapidly becoming urban-centric especially amongst the emerging economies, social innovation will assist greatly in deploying emerging technologies to address the development challenges in core sectors of the future cities. In this context, sustainable health-care delivery and improved quality of life of the people is considered at the heart of the healthy city agenda. This paper examines the Boston innovation landscape from the perspective of smart services and innovation ecosystem for sustainable development, especially in transportation and healthcare. It investigates the policy implementation process of the Healthy City agenda and eHealth economy innovation based on the experience of Massachusetts’s City of Boston initiatives. For this purpose, three emerging areas are emphasized, namely the eHealth concept, the innovation hubs, and the emerging technologies that drive innovation. This was carried out through empirical analysis on results of public sector and industry-wide interviews/survey about Boston’s current initiatives and the enabling environment. The paper highlights few potential research directions for service integration and social innovation for deploying emerging technologies in the healthy city agenda. The study therefore suggests the need to prioritize social innovation as an overarching strategy to build sustainable Smart Cities in order to avoid technology lock-in. Finally, it concludes that the Boston example of innovation economy is unique in view of the existing platforms for innovation and proper understanding of its dynamics, which is imperative in building smart and healthy cities where quality of life of the citizenry can be improved.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130403Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1040
 Gaia Moretti, L., Social Innovation in Smart Cities, A Good Practice from an European Project. LUMSAA -Libera Universita Maria Ss. Assunta Rome, Italy, 2015.
 Solanas, A., et al., Smart health: a context-aware health paradigm within smart cities. IEEE Communications Magazine, 2014. 52(8): p. 74-81.
 Batty, M., et al., Smart cities of the future. The European Physical Journal Special Topics, 2012. 214(1): p. 481-518.
 Colglazier, W., Sustainable development agenda: 2030. Science, 2015. 349(6252): p. 1048-1050.
 Arupt, Smart Solution for Cities. Available at www.barangoo.com retrived August 1, 2015. 2011.
 DBIS. Smart Cities: Background Paper. 2013 (cited 2016 March 29); Available from: www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/246019/bis-13-1209-smart-cities-background-paper-digital.pdf.
 Fox, M. S., A foundation ontology for global city indicators. University of Toronto, Toronto, Global Cities Institute, 2013.
 Marsal-Llacuna, M.-L. Measuring the Standardized Definition of “smart city”: A Proposal on Global Metrics to Set the Terms of Reference for Urban “smartness”. in International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications. 2015. Springer.
 Mayors' Office Boston Named One of the 'Most Livable' Cities in the United States. 2015. 2016.
 Washburn, D., et al., Helping CIOs understand “smart city” initiatives. Growth, 2009. 17(2).
 Kondepudi, S., Smart Sustainable Cities Analysis of Definitions. The ITU-T Focus Group for Smart Sustainable Cities, 2014.
 Lee, J. H., M. G. Hancock, and M.-C. Hu, Towards an effective framework for building smart cities: Lessons from Seoul and San Francisco. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 2014. 89: p. 80-99.
 Harrison, C. and I.A. Donnelly. A theory of smart cities. in Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the ISSS-2011, Hull, UK. 2011.
 WHO; Available from://www.who.int/healthy_settings/types/cities/en/. Retrieved September 22, 2016.
 Boulos, M. N. K. and N. M. Al-Shorbaji, On the Internet of Things, smart cities and the WHO Healthy Cities. International journal of health geographics, 2014. 13(1): p. 1.
 Corburn, J., Toward the healthy city: people, places, and the politics of urban planning. 2009: Mit Press.
 Schootman, M., et al., Emerging technologies to measure neighborhood conditions in public health: implications for interventions and next steps. International Journal of Health Geographics, 2016. 15(1): p. 20.
 Thoma, I., et al. Towards a Human Centric Intelligent Society: Using Cloud and the Web of Everything to Facilitate New Social Infrastructures. In Innovative Mobile and Internet Services in Ubiquitous Computing (IMIS), 2015 9th International Conference on. 2015. IEEE.
 Zhu, N., et al., Bridging e-Health and the Internet of things: the SPHERE project. IEEE Intelligent Systems, 2015. 30(4): p. 39-46.
 Bhunia, S. S., S. K. Dhar, and N. Mukherjee. iHealth: A Fuzzy approach for provisioning Intelligent Health-care system in Smart City. in 2014 IEEE 10th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob). 2014. IEEE.
 Khoi, N. M., et al. IReHMo: An efficient IoT-based remote health monitoring system for smart regions. in 2015 17th International Conference on E-health Networking, Application & Services (HealthCom). 2015. IEEE.
 Alanazi, S., et al. On resilience of Wireless Mesh routing protocol against DoS attacks in IoT-based ambient assisted living applications. in 2015 17th International Conference on E-health Networking, Application & Services (HealthCom). 2015. IEEE.
 Sucasas, V., et al. An OAuth2-based protocol with strong user privacy preservation for smart city mobile e-Health apps. in Communications (ICC), 2016 IEEE International Conference on. 2016. IEEE.
 Naphade, M., et al., Smarter cities and their innovation challenges. Computer, 2011. 44(6): p. 32-39.
 City of Boston. BOS 311. 2016 (cited 2016 December 29, 2016); Available from: http://www.cityofboston.gov/311.
 Islam, S. R., et al., The internet of things for health care: a comprehensive survey. IEEE Access, 2015. 3: p. 678-708.
 Nam, T. and T. A. Pardo. Conceptualizing smart city with dimensions of technology, people, and institutions. in Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Digital Government Research Conference: Digital Government Innovation in Challenging Times. 2011. ACM.
 Giffinger, R., et al., Smart cities-Ranking of European medium-sized cities. 2007, Vienna University of Technology.
 Nam, T. and T. A. Pardo. Smart city as urban innovation: Focusing on management, policy, and context. in Proceedings of the 5th international conference on theory and practice of electronic governance. 2011. ACM.
 Schaffers, H., et al., Smart Cities and the Future Internet: Towards Cooperation Frameworks for Open Innovation. Future Internet Assembly, 2011. 6656: p. 431-446.
 Komninos, N., M. Pallot, and H. Schaffers, Special issue on smart cities and the future internet in Europe. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 2013. 4(2): p. 119-134.
 Agbali M., Y. A., C. Trillo, Developing a Conceptual Framework for Measuring Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) of the Impact of Smart Cities in Emerging Economies. 2016.
 Sarin, G., Developing Smart Cities Using Internet of Things: An Empirical Study. Available at SSRN 2780756, 2016.
 Chourabi, H., et al. Understanding smart cities: An integrative framework. in System Science (HICSS), 2012 45th Hawaii International Conference on. 2012. IEEE.
 Glaeser, E. L., Smart Growth: Education, skilled workers and the future of cold-weather cities. Cambridge (MA), Harvard University, Kennedy School, Policy Brief PB-2005-1, 2005.
 Yigitcanlar, T., K. O’connor, and C. Westerman, The making of knowledge cities: Melbourne’s knowledge-based urban development experience. Cities, 2008. 25(2): p. 63-72.
 Edvinsson, L., K-city and society entrepreneurship for intellectual capital. Carrillo, Francisco.(2006). Knowledge cities: approaches, experiences, and perspectives. Elsevier Amsterdam, Boston, Heidelberg, London, New York, Oxford, Paris, San Diego, San Francisco, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo, 2006: p. 59-73.
 International Organization for Standardization, ISO 37120:2014 - Sustainable development of communities -- Indicators for city services and quality of life. 2014.
 MiHe.MassTech, The Commonwealth of Massachusetts 2012 Health Information Exchange Strategic and Operational Plan. 2012.
 IBM, IBM Smarter Cities Challenge, Boston Report. 2012.
 City of Boston, Go Boston 2030. 2015. Available from https://www.boston.gov/transportation/go-boston-2030 retrieved December 03, 2016.
 Yin, R., Case study research: Design and methods. 2014, Los Angeles, USA: SAGE.
 MassTech, Index of Massachusetts Innovation Economy 2015/2016 Edition. 2015.
 StartUp Health, L., Startup Health Insight: Digital Health Funding Rankings 2015 Midyear Report. 2015.
 Common Wealth of Massachusatts, An Act advancing and expanding access to telemedicine services. 2015.