Statistical Modeling of Mandarin Tone Sandhi: Neutralization of Underlying Pitch Targets
This study statistically models the surface f0 contour and the underlying pitch target of a well-studied third sandhi tone of Mandarin Chinese. Although the growth curve analysis on the surface f0 contours indicates non-neutralization of this sandhi tone (T3) and the base T2, their underlying pitch targets do show neutralization. These results in Mandarin are also consistent with the perception of native speakers, where they cannot distinguish the third T3 from the base T2, compensating contextual variation. It is possible to use the proposed statistical procedure of testing underlying pitch targets to verify tone sandhi processes in other tonal languages.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130243Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 692
 E. Zee, “Tone and vowel quality,” Journal of Phonetics, vol. 8, pp. 247–258, July 1980.
 J. Zhang, and J. Liu, “Tone sandhi and tonal coarticulation in Tianjin Chinese,” Phonetica, vol. 68, no. 3, pp. 161-191, Nov. 2011.
 S. H. Peng, “Lexical versus ‘phonological’ representations of Mandarin sandhi tones”, in Papers in laboratory phonology V: Acquisition and the lexicon, M. B. Broe, and J. Pierrehumbert Eds., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 152-167.
 M. Chen, Tone sandhi patterns across Chinese dialects, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
 Y. R. Chao, Mandarin Primer, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1948.
 C. C. Cheng, “English stresses and Chinese tones in Chinese sentences”, Phonetica, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 77-88, 1968.
 J. Zhang, and Y. W. Lai, "Testing the role of phonetic knowledge in Mandarin tone sandhi," Phonology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 153-201, May 2010.
 X. S. Shen, “Tonal coarticulation in Mandarin”, Journal of Phonetics, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 281-295, 1990.
 Y. Xu, “Contextual tonal variations in Mandarin,” PhD thesis. University of Connecticut, 1993.
 J. H. Yuan, and Y. Chen, “3RD tone sandhi in Standard Chinese: A corpus approach,” Journal of Chinese Linguistics, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 218-234, 2014.
 Y. Xu, & S. Prom-On, “Toward invariant functional representations of variable surface fundamental frequency contours: Synthesizing speech melody via model-based stochastic learning,” Speech Communication, vol. 57, pp. 181-208, Feb. 2014.
 W. S. Y. Wang, & K. P. Li, “Tone 3 in Pekinese,” Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 629-236, Sep. 1967.
 Y. C. Chang, & Y. C. Su, “La modification tonale du 3ème ton du mandarin parlé à Taiwan (Tone modification of the third tone in Mandarin spoken in Taiwan),” Cahiers de Linguistique Asie Orientale, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 39-59, 1994.
 A. Chen, L. Liu, and R. Kager, “Cross-linguistic perception of Mandarin tone sandhi,” Language Sciences, vol. 48, 62-69, Mar. 2015.
 Y. Xu, “Asymmetry in contextual tonal variation in Mandarin,” Advances in the study of Chinese language processing, vol. 1, pp. 383-396, 1994.
 Y. Xu, “Contextual tonal variations in Mandarin,” Journal of Phonetics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 61-83, Jan. 1997.
 X. S. Shen, & M. Lin, “A perceptual study of Mandarin tones 2 and 3,” Language and speech, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 145-156, April/June 1991.
 S. Prom-On, Y. Xu, & B. Thipakorn, “Modeling tone and intonation in Mandarin and English as a process of target approximation,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 405-424, 2009.
 Y. Xu, and Q. E. Wang, “Pitch targets and their realization: evidence from Mandarin Chinese,” Speech Communication, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 319-337, Mar. 2001.
 X. J. Sun, “Predicting underlying pitch targets for intonation modeling,” 4th ISCA Tutorial and Research Workshop on Speech Synthesis, 2001.
 Y. Xu, “Speech melody as articulatorily implemented communicative functions,” Speech Communication, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 220-251, July 2005.
 R Core Team, R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: Foundation for Statistical Computing, May 1, 2013. (http://www.R-project.org/)
 Y. Chen, “How does phonology guide phonetics in segment-f0 interaction?” Journal of Phonetics, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 612-625, Oct. 2011.
 M. Halle, and K. N. Stevens, “A note on laryngeal features. Quarterly Progress Report,” MIT Research Lab of Electronics, vol. 101, pp. 198-213, 1971.
 J. M. Hombert, J. J. Ohala, and W. G. Ewan, “Phonetic Explanations for the Development of Tones,” Language, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 37-58, Mar. 1979.
 C. C. Zhang, and G. Peng, “Productivity of Mandarin third tone sandhi: a wug test,” In Eastward flows the great river: Festschrift in honor of Prof. William S-Y. Wang on his 80th birthday, G. Peng, and F. Shi Eds. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press, 2011, pp. 256-282.
 P. Boersma, and D. Weenink, Praat: doing phonetics by computer (Computer program), Version 5.4.17, retrieved 31 Aug 2015 from http://www.praat.org
 Y. Xu, “ProsodyPro — A tool for large-scale systematic prosody analysis,” in Tools and Resources for the Analysis of Speech Prosody (TRASP 2013), Aix-en- Provence, France, 2013, pp. 7-10.
 P. Rose, “Considerations in the normalization of the fundamental frequency of linguistic tone,” Speech communication, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 343-52, Dec. 1987.
 X. Zhu, “Shanghai Tonetics,” PhD thesis. Australian National University, 1999.
 D. Mirman, J. A. Dixon, and J. S. Magnuson, “Statistical and computational models of the visual world paradigm: Growth curves and individual differences,” Journal of Memory and Language, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 475-494, Nov. 2008.
 D. Mirman, Growth Curve Analysis and Visualization Using R, London: Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2016.