Relationship between Codependency, Perceived Social Support, and Depression in Mothers of Children with Intellectual Disability
The goal of this research was to study the relationship between codependency, perceived social support and depression in mothers of children with intellectual disability (ID). The correlational method was used in this study. The research population is comprised of mothers of educable children with ID in the age range of 25 to 61 years. From among this, a sample of 251 individuals, in the multistage cluster sampling method, was selected from educational districts in Tehran, who responded to the Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale (SFCDS), the Social Support Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The findings of this study indicate that among mothers of children with ID depression has a positive and significant correlation with codependency (P<0.01, r=0.4) and a negative and significant correlation with the total score of social support (P<0.01, r=-0.34). Moreover, the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that codependency is allocated a higher variance than social support in explaining depression (R2=0.023).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130131Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 666
 Kalaria R. (2001). Africa adopts dare to care attitude for mental illness, Neuro report, 12(10): 65,
 Hayes, A., Watson, SL. (2013). The impact of parenting stress: a meta-analysis of studies comparing the experience of parenting stress in parents of children with and without autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord.;43(3):629-42.
 Santamaria F., Cuzzocrea F., Gugliandolo M.C., Larcan R. (2012). Marital satisfaction and attributions style in parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Down Syndrome and nondisabled children. Life span and disability, XV, 1, 19-37.
 Benn, R., Akiva, T., Arel, S., Roeser, R., W. (2012). Mindfulness training effects for parents and educators of children with special needs. Developmental Psychology, Vol 48(5), 1476-1487.
 McConkey,R. ,Truesdale-Kennedy,M., Chang, M., Jarrah, S. and Shukri, R. (2008). The impact on mothers of bringing up a child with intellectual disabilities: A cross – cultural study International. Journal of Nursing Studies (in press) Published On-line. 27,149-160
 Martsolf, D. S. (2002). Codependency, boundaries, and professional nurse caring: Understanding similarities and. differences in nursing practice. Journal of Orthopaedic Nursing, 21(6): 61-67.
 Dias R, Paula LE, Norman EM, de PA. (2005). Translation and adaptation of the Social Support Network Inventory in Brazil. J Nurs Scholarsh; 37:258-60.
 Khosravi, N; Panahi, L; Ahmadabadi, Z; Sadeqi, M. (2013). The relationship between inefficiency of family of origin and women’s codependency: the moderating role of academic education. Journal of Applied Psychology, 7th year, N. 25, Pp. 80-100.
 Hughes-Hammer, C., Martsolf, D. S., and Zeller, R. A. (1998). Depression and codependency in women. Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, 12(6): 326-334.
 Noriega G, Ramos L, Medina-Mora ME. and Villa, AR. )2008) Prevalence of Codependence in Young Women Seeking Primary Health Care and Associated Risk Factors. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry.;78 (2): 199-210.
 Reyomend, Ward KS. )2007(. Self-reported history of childhood maltreatment and codependency in undergraduate nursing students. Journal of Emotional Abuse.; (7): 37–50.
 Lindley, N. R., Giordano, P. J., and Hammer, E. D. (1999). Codependency: Predictors and psychometric issues. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(1): 59-64.
 Uchino BN. (2006). Social support and health: a review of physiological processes pote-ntially underlying links to disease outcome-es. J Behav Med; 29:377-87.
 Kilpatric R. (2005). Support, Social, relationships and mental health. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation; 364-349.
 Naderi, F; Safarzadeh, S; Mashak, R. (2011). Comparison of hypochondria, social support, social anxiety and public health among mothers of children with ID and mothers of normal children. Journal of Health and Psychology, Issue 1, N. 1, Pp. 14-15.
 Bakhshayi, N; Birshak, B; Atef Vahid, M; Bolhari, J. (2003). The relationship between the perceived social support and stressful life events, and depression. Journal of Andisheh va Raftar, 9(2).
 Chan DW. (2002). Stress, self-efficacy, social support, and psychological distress among prospective Chinese teachers in Hong Kong. Education Psycholgy; 22:557-69.
 Lyndall S, Dorothy B. (2008). The mental health costs and benefits of giving social support. International. J Stress Manage; 14:370-85.
 Fischer, J., Spann, L., and Crawford, D. (1991). Measuring codependency. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 8: 87-99.
 Lakey, B., and Cohen, S. (2000). Social support theory and measurement. In S. Cohen, L. Underwood, and B. H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 29-52). New York: Oxford University Press.
 Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown GK. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory–II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
 Penedo, F.J.; Antoni, M.H.; Schneiderman, N.; Ironson, G.H.; Malow, R.M.; Cruess, S.H. and Laperriere, A. (2001) "Dysfunctional Attitudes, Coping, and Depression among HIV-Seropositive Men Who Have Sex with Men". Cognitive Therapy and Research. Vol, 25.
 Greenberger, E.; Chen, C. and Tally, S.R. (2000). Family, peer and individual correlates of depressive among US. And Chinese adolescents. Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 68 (2), p.p. 209-219.
 Blacher, J.and Cameron, L. (2005). Families and Intellectual Disability Current Option in Psychiatry Journal of Family psychology, 18 (5): 50-67.
 Piazza, VE, Floyd, FJ, Mailick, MR, Greenberg, JS. (2014). Coping and psychological health of aging parents of adult children with developmental disabilities. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. 119, 186-198.
 Fisher, J., and Crawford, D. (1992). Codependency and parenting styles. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 352-363.
 O'Gorman, P. (1993). Codependency explored: A social movement in search of definition and treatment. Journal of Psychiatric Quarterly, 64, 199-212.
 Windle, M. (1992). A longitudinal study of stress buffering for adolescent problem behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 28, 522-530.