Differential Analysis: Crew Resource Management and Profiles on the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding
A concern when administering questionnaires is whether the participant is providing information that is accurate. The results may be invalid because the person is trying to present oneself in an unrealistic positive manner referred to as ‘faking good’, or in an unrealistic negative manner known as ‘faking bad’. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) was used to assess commercial pilots’ responses on the two subscales of the BIDR: impression management (IM) and self-deceptive enhancement (SDE) that result in high or low scores. Thus, the BIDR produces four valid profiles: IM low and SDE low, IM high and SDE low, IM low and SDE high, and IM high and SDE high. The various profiles were used to compare the respondents’ answers to crew resource management (CRM) items developed from the USA Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) guidelines for CRM composition and training. Of particular interest were the results on the IM subscale. The comparisons between those scoring high (lying or faking) versus those low on the IM suggest that there were significant differences regarding their views of the various dimensions of CRM. One of the more disconcerting conclusions is that the high IM scores suggest that the pilots were trying to impress rather than honestly answer the questions regarding their CRM training and practice.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1129930Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 703
 Nederhof, A. J. (1985). Methods of coping with social desirability bias: A review. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15(3), 263-280.
 Paulhus, D. L. (1991). Measurement and control of response bias. In J. P. Robinson, P. R. Shaver, & L. S. Wrightsman (Eds.), Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes (pp. 17-59). New York: Academic Press.
 Paulhus, D. L. (2002). Socially desirable responding: the evolution of a construct. In H. I Braun, N. Jackson, & D. E. Wiley (Eds.), The role of constructs in psychological and educational measurement (pp. 46-69). Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
 National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2007). National Aviation Operations Monitoring Service—Reference Report: Concepts, methods, and development roadmap. Retrieved on February 17, 2017 from https://www.nasa.gov/pdf/ 207238main_NAOMS%20Reference%20Report_508.pdf
 Edwards, A. L. (1970). The measurememt of personality traits by scales and inventories. Holt, Reinhard and Winston. New York.
 Himmelfarb, S. and Lickteig, C. (1982). Social desirability and the randomized response technique. Journal of Personaliry and Social Psychology, 43, 710-717.
 Warner, S. L. (1965). Randomized response: A survey technique for eliminating evasive answer bias. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 60, 63-69.
 Bradburn. N. M. & Sudman. S. (1979). Improving interview methods and questionnaire design. San Francisco, CA: Josey-Bass.
 Miller. J P. (1981). Complexities of the randomized response solution. American Sociological Review, 46, 928-930.
 Jones, E. E. & Sigall, H. (1971). The bogus pipeline: A new paradigm for measuring affect and attitude. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 349-364.
 Roese, N. J., & Jamieson, D. W. (1993). Twenty years of bogus pipeline research: A critical review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 363-375.
 Ries. M., Kalle. R. J., & Tedeschi, J. T. (1981). The bogus pipeline and attitude moderation following induced compliance: Misattribution of dissonance arousal or impression management inhibition? Journal of Social Psychology, 115, 247-258.
 Aguinis, H., Pierce, C. A., & Quigley, B. M. (1995). Enhancing the validity of self-reported alcohol and marijuana consumption using a bogus pipeline procedure: A meta-analytic review. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16, 515-527.
 Arkin, R. M. and Lake, E. A. (1983). Plumbing the depths of the bogus pipeline: A reprise. Journal of Research in Personality, 17, 81-88.
 Paulhus, D. L. (1982). Individual differences, impression management. and cognitive dissonance: Their concurrent operation in forced compliance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 838--852.
 Weiss, C. H. (1969). Interviewer biasing effects: Toward a reconciliation of findings. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 127-129.
 Williams, J. A. (1969). Interviewer biasing effects: Toward a reconciliation of findings. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 125-127.
 Sudman. S. & Bradburn. N. M. (1974). Response effects in surveys. Chicago, IL: Aldine Press.
 Calsyn, R. J.; Roades, L. A.; and Calsyn, D. S. (1992). Acquiescence in needs assessment studies of the elderly. The Gerontologist, 32, 246-252.
 Nicholls, W. L., II, Baker, R. P., & Martin, J. (1997). The effect of new data collection technologies on survey data quality. In L. E. Lyberg, P. P. Biemer, M. Collins, E. D. de Leeuw, C. Dippo, N. Schwarz, and D. Trewin (Eds.), Survey measurement and process quality (pp. 221-248). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
 Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, A.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 9(1), 19-32.
 Helmreich, R. L. & Foushee, H. C. (2010). Why CRM? Empirical and theoretical bases of human factors training. In B. G. Kanki (Ed.), Crew resource management (2nd ed., pp. 3-57). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Science.
 Lauber, J. K. (1984). Resource management in the cockpit. Air Line Pilot, 53, 20–23.
 Cooper, G. E., White, M. D., & Lauber, J. K. (1980). Resource management on the flight deck: Proceedings of a NASA/industry workshop. (NASA CP-2120). Moffett Field, CA: NASA Ames Research Center.
 Federal Aviation Administration. (2004). Advisory Circular System 120-51E (2004) – Crew resource management training. Retrieved on August 4, 2016 from http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/ advisory_circulars/index.cfm/go/document.information/documentid/22879.
 Salas, E., Wilson, K. A., Burke, C. S., Wightman, D. C. (2006). Does crew resource management training work? An update, an extension, and some critical needs. Human Factors, 48(2), 392-412.
 Salas, E., Prince, C., Bowers, C. A., Stout, R. J., Oser, R. L., & Cannon-Bowers, J. A. (1999). A methodology for enhancing crew resource management training. Human Factors, 41(1), 161-172. doi: 10.1518/001872099779577255.
 Helmreich, R. L., & Wilhelm, J. A. (1991). Outcomes of crew resource management training. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 1(4), 287-300.
 Birkeland, S. A., Manson, T. M., Kisamore, J. L., Brannick, M. T., & Smith, M. A. (2006). A meta-analytic investigation of job applicant faking on personality measures. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 14, 317-335.
 Bureau of Labor Statistics (2016). Labor Force Statistics from the Current Population Survey. Transportation and material moving—aircraft pilot and flight engineers. Retrieved on February 26, 2017 from https://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat11Calsyn, R. J., Roades, L. A., & Calsyn, D. S. (1992). Acquiescence in needs assessment studies of the elderly. The Gerontologist, 32, 246-252.
 Hart, C. M., Ritchie, T. D., Hepper, E. G., & Gebauer, J. E. (2015). The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding Short Form (BIDR-16). SAGE Open, 5(4), 1-9. Retrieved on November 4, 2106, from sgo.sagepub.com. DOI: 10.1177/2158244015621113.
 Maurino, D. E. & Murray, P. S. (2010). Crew resource management. In J. A. Wise, V. D. Hopkin, and D. J. Garland (Eds.), Handbook of aviation human factors (2nd ed., pp. 10–1 20). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group.