Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32007
Anisotropic Shear Strength of Sand Containing Plastic Fine Materials

Authors: Alaa H. J. Al-Rkaby, A. Chegenizadeh, H. R. Nikraz


Anisotropy is one of the major aspects that affect soil behavior, and extensive efforts have investigated its effect on the mechanical properties of soil. However, very little attention has been given to the combined effect of anisotropy and fine contents. Therefore, in this paper, the anisotropic strength of sand containing different fine content (F) of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, was investigated using hollow cylinder tests under different principal stress directions of α = 0° and α = 90°. For a given principal stress direction (α), it was found that increasing fine content resulted in decreasing deviator stress (q). Moreover, results revealed that all fine contents showed anisotropic strength where there is a clear difference between the strength under 0° and the strength under 90°. This anisotropy was greatest under F = 5% while it decreased with increasing fine contents, particularly at F = 10%. Mixtures with low fine content show low contractive behavior and tended to show more dilation. Moreover, all sand-clay mixtures exhibited less dilation and more compression at α = 90° compared with that at α = 0°.

Keywords: Anisotropy, principal stress direction, fine content, hollow cylinder sample.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 911


[1] Alaa H. J. Al-rkaby, A. Chegenizadeh, H. R. Nikraz, “Directional dependence in the mechanical characteristics of sand: a review,” Int. J. Geotech. Eng., vol. 10, no. 5, pp.499-509, 2016
[2] R. F. Arthur, B.K. Menzies, “Inherent anisotropy in sand,” Géotechnique, vol. 22, no. 1, pp.115-131, 1972.
[3] M. Oda, “The mechanism of fabric changes during compressional deformation of sand,” Soils Found., vol. 12 no. 1, pp. 1-1, 1972.
[4] M. Oda, K. Isao, H. Toshio, “Experimental study of anisotropic shear strength of sand by plane strain test,” Soil Found. vol. 18 no. 1, pp. 25-38, 1978.
[5] Azami, S. Pietruszczak, P. Guo, “Bearing capacity of shallow foundations in transversely isotropic granular media,” Int. J. Numer. Anal. Methods Geomech., vol. 34 no. 8, pp. 771-793, 2010
[6] M. Oda, “Initial Fabrics and Their Mechanical Properties of Granular Material,” Soil Found., vol.12, no.1, pp.17-36, 1972.
[7] Z. Tong, P. Fu, S. Zhou, Y. F. Dafalias, “Experimental investigation of shear strength of sands with inherent fabric anisotropy,” Acta Geotechnica, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 257-275, 2014.
[8] P. Guo, “Modified direct shear test for anisotropic strength of sand,” J. Geotech. and Geoenvir. Eng. ASCE, vol. 134, no.9, pp. 1311–1318, 2008.
[9] L. Zdravkovic, R. J. Jardine, “Some anisotropic stiffness characteristics of a silt under general stress conditions,” Geotechnique, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 407-437, 1997.
[10] L. Zdravković, R. J. Jardine, “The effect on anisotropy of rotating the principal stress axes during consolidation,” Geotechnique, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 69-83, 2001.
[11] H. Lin, D. Penumadu, “Experimental investigation on principal stress rotation in Kaolin clay,” J. Geotech. and Geoenvir. Eng. ASCE, vol.131, no.5, pp. 633-642, 2005.
[12] A. N. Minh, S. Nishimura, A. Takahashi, R. J. Jardine, “On the control systems and instrumentation required to investigate the anisotropy of stiff clays and mud rocks through hollow cylinder tests,” In Proc. 5th Int. Symp. Deform. Charact. Geomater, Seoul, 2011, 287–294.
[13] M. Huang, Y. Liu, “Experimental Investigation and Three Dimensional Constitutive Modeling of Principal Stress Rotation in Shanghai Soft Clay”, In Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 567-575, 2013.
[14] J. Xiao, C. H. Juang, K. Wei, S. Xu, “Effects of principal stress rotation on the cumulative deformation of normally consolidated soft clay under subway traffic loading,” J. Geotech. and Geoenvir. Eng. ASCE, vol. 140, no.4, 2013.
[15] J. Zhou, J. J. Yan, Z. Y. Liu, X. N. Gong, “Undrained anisotropy and non-coaxial behavior of clayey soil under principal stress rotation,” J. Zhejiang University Science A, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 241-254, 2014.
[16] K. Miura, S. Miura, S. Toki, “Deformation behavior of anisotropic dense sand under principal stress axes rotation,” Soils Found., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 36-52, 1986.
[17] M. Bayat, E. Bayat, H. Aminpour, A. Salarpour, “Shear strength and pore-water pressure characteristics of sandy soil mixed with plastic fine,” Arab. J. Geosci., vol. 7, no.3, pp.1049-1057, 2014.
[18] D. H. Hsiao, V. T. A. Phan, Y. T. Hsieh, H. Y. Kuo, “Engineering behavior and correlated parameters from obtained results of sand–silt mixtures,” Soil Dyn. Earthq Eng., vol. 77, pp. 137-151. 2015.
[19] S. A. Naeini, M. H. Baziar, “Effect of fines content on steady-state strength of mixed and layered samples of a sand,” Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 181-187, 2004.
[20] X. Jiang, P. Cui, Y. Ge, “Effects of fines on the strength characteristics of mixtures,” Eng. Geol., vol. 198, pp. 78-86, 2015.
[21] J. A. H. Carraro, M. Prezzi, R. Salgado, “Shear strength and stiffness of sands containing plastic or nonplastic fines,” J. Geotech. And Geoenvir., vol. 135, no. 9, pp. 1167-1178, 2009.
[22] S. S. Najjar, K. Yaghi,, M. Adwan, A. A. R. A. Jaoude, “Drained shear strength of compacted sand with clayey fines,” Int. J. Geotech. Eng., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 513-520. 2015.