Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30123
Designing a Motivated Tangible Multimedia System for Preschoolers
Abstract:The paper examined the capability of a prototype of a tangible multimedia system that was augmented with tangible objects in motivating young preschoolers in learning. Preschoolers’ learning behaviour is highly captivated and motivated by external physical stimuli. Hence, conventional multimedia which solely dependent on digital visual and auditory formats for knowledge delivery could potentially place them in inappropriate state of circumstances that are frustrating, boring, or worse, impede overall learning motivations. This paper begins by discussion with the objectives of the research, followed by research questions, hypotheses, ARCS model of motivation adopted in the process of macro-design, and the research instrumentation, Persuasive Multimedia Motivational Scale was deployed for measuring the level of motivation of subjects towards the experimental tangible multimedia. At the close, a succinct description of the findings of a relevant research is provided. In the research, a total of 248 preschoolers recruited from seven Malaysian kindergartens were examined. Analyses revealed that the tangible multimedia system improved preschoolers’ learning motivation significantly more than conventional multimedia. Overall, the findings led to the conclusion that the tangible multimedia system is a motivation conducive multimedia for preschoolers.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1129071Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 642
 J. M. Keller, “Motivational design for learning and performance: The ARCS Model approach,” USA: Springer, 2010.
 R. M. Yelverton, “Motivation and engagement across the kindergarten transition: A self-determination perspective,” Master thesis. Portland State University, 2014.
 C. P. Niemiec and R. M. Ryan, “Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice,” Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 133-144.
 Klem, A. M., and J. P. Connell, “Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement,” Journal of School Health, 74(7), 2004, pp. 262-273.
 M. P. Carlton and A. Winsler, “Fostering intrinsic motivation in early childhood classrooms,” In Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 25, No. 3. 1998, retrieved on 20 December 2016 from http://winslerlab.gmu.edu/pubs/CarltonWinsler98.pdf
 J. Blanchard and T. Moore, “The digital world of young children: Impact on emergent literacy,” The white paper. Research presented by the Pearson Foundation. College of Teacher Education and Leadership, Arizona State University, 2010, retrieved on 23 December 2016 from http://www.pearsonfoundation.org/downloads/EmergentLiteracy-WhitePaper.pdf
 Niza Asyadi Bin Haji Hamzah, “Educational website for preschooler: Usability,” Unpublished undergraduate dissertation. Faculty of Information and Communication Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia, 2008.
 E. L. Deci, “Intrinsic motivation,” New York: Plenum Press, 1975.
 R. Ryan and E. Deci, “Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being,” American Psychologist, 55(1), 2000, pp. 68-78.
 Vickneasvari A/P Krishnasamy, “The effects of a multimedia constructivist environment on students’ achievement and motivation in the learning of chemical formulae and equations,” Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 2006.
 C. J. Chen, “The design, development and evaluation of a virtual reality (VR)-based learning environment: Its efficacy in novice car driver instruction,” Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 2005.
 J. Piaget, “The principles of genetic epistemology,” New York: Basic Books, 1972.
 J. Piaget, “The grasp of consciousness,” Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976.
 J. M. Keller, “Development and use of the ARCS model of motivational design,” Journal of Instructional Development, 10 (3), 1987, pp. 2-10.
 R. V. Small, “Motivation in instructional design,” NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology Syracuse, 1997.
 D. H. Jonassen, “Designing constructivist learning environments,” In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, 2, 215-239. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1999.
 A. Manches, “The effect of physical manipulation on children’s numerical strategies: Evaluating the potential for tangible technology,” Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Nottingham, UK, 2010.
 S. C. Toh, “Cognitive and motivational effects of two multimedia simulation presentation modes on science learning,” Unpublished Doctoral Thesis, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 1998.
 Sobihatun Nur Bt Abdul Salam, “The development and effects of a persuasive multimedia learning environment (PMLE) in reducing children dental anxiety,” Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, 2010.
 C. P. Dancey and J. Reidy, “Statistics without Maths for psychology,” Pearson Education, UK, 2011.
 A. Field, “Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd ed.),” London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2009.
 S. Yalcinalp, O. Geban, and I. Ozkan, “Effectiveness of using computer-assisted supplementary instruction for teaching the mole concept,” Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32, 1995, pp. 1083-1095.
 K. M. Stanney, R. R. Mourant, and R.S. Kennedy, “Human factors issues in virtual environments: A review of the literature,” Presence, 7(4), 1998, pp. 327-351. MIT.
 Alessi, S. M., & Trollip, S. R. “Multimedia for learning: Methods and development (3rd Edition),” Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2001.
 J. M. Keller and K. Suzuki, “Use of the ARCS motivation model in courseware design,” In D.H. Jonassen (Ed.), Instructional Designs for Microcomputer Courseware, 1988, pp. 401-434. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
 R. C. Richey, (Ed.). “The Legacy of Robert Gagné,” Syracuse. NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology, 2000.
 K. C. Basile, “Gender differences in K-12 education: What indicators are important?,” Paper Prepared for Georgia Council for School Performance. USA: Applied Research Center of the Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, 1995.
 T. Allen, “Sex differences in the Science Lab,” 2004, retrieved on 29 November 2016 from http://www.trinaallen.com/sexdiffe rences_sciencelab.html
 J. Sanders, “Closing the gender gap,” The Executive Educator, September Issue, 1993, pp. 32-33.
 L. Cuban, “So Much High-tech Money Invested, So Little Use: How Come?,” Paper prepared for the Council of Chief State School Officers Annual Technology Leadership Conference. Washington, D. C., 2000.
 J. M. Keller, “Motivational design of instruction,” In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional design theories and models: An overview of their current status, 1983, pp. 383-434. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.