Effects of High-Protein, Low-Energy Diet on Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Clinical Trial
Background: In addition to reducing body weight, the low-calorie diets can reduce the lean body mass. It is hypothesized that in addition to reducing the body weight, the low-calorie diets can maintain the lean body mass. So, the current study aimed at evaluating the effects of high-protein diet with calorie restriction on body composition in overweight and obese individuals. Methods: 36 obese and overweight subjects were divided randomly into two groups. The first group received a normal-protein, low-energy diet (RDA), and the second group received a high-protein, low-energy diet (2×RDA). The anthropometric indices including height, weight, body mass index, body fat mass, fat free mass, and body fat percentage were evaluated before and after the study. Results: A significant reduction was observed in anthropometric indices in both groups (high-protein, low-energy diets and normal-protein, low-energy diets). In addition, more reduction in fat free mass was observed in the normal-protein, low-energy diet group compared to the high -protein, low-energy diet group. In other the anthropometric indices, significant differences were not observed between the two groups. Conclusion: Independently of the type of diet, low-calorie diet can improve the anthropometric indices, but during a weight loss, high-protein diet can help the fat free mass to be maintained.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1128885Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 660
 D. M. Nguyen, H. B. El-Serag. “The epidemiology of obesity,” Gastroenterol Clin North Am, vol.39, 2010, pp. 1-7.
 G. Koochakpoor, M. S. Daneshpour, P. Mirmiran, et al. “The effect of interaction between Melanocortin-4 receptor polymorphism and dietary factors on the risk of metabolic syndrome,” Nutr Metab (Lond), vol.13, 2016, pp. 35.
 C.L. Ogden, M. D. Carroll, M. A. McDowell, et al. “Obesity among adults in the United States-no statistically significant chance since 2003-2004,” NCHS Data Brief, vol.1, 2007, pp. 1-8.
 C. L. Ogden, S. Z. Yanovski, M. D. Carroll, et al. “The epidemiology of obesity,” Gastroenterol, vol.132, 2007, pp. 2087-2102.
 H. Rashidi, S. P. Payami, S. M. Latifi, et al. “Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its correlated factors among children and adolescents of Ahvaz aged 10 - 19,” J Diabetes Metab Disord, vol.13, 2014, pp.53.
 K. Cheraghpoor, E. Ehrampoush, R. Shahbazi, et al. “Evaluation and Compare the Indices of Body Adiposity in Ahvaz University Students,” Jundishapur Sci Med J, vol.14, 2015, pp. 533-549.
 M, Ladhani, J.C Craig, m. Irving, et al. “Obesity and the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2016, (Epub ahead of print).
 L. Gilardini, G. Redaelli, m. Croci, et al., “Effect of a Modest Weight Loss in Normalizing Blood Pressure in Obese Subjects on Antihypertensive Drugs,” Obes Facts, vol. 9, 2016, pp. 251-258, (Epub ahead of print).
 P. J. Joris, J. Plat J, Y. H. Kusters. “Diet-induced weight loss improves not only cardiometabolic risk markers but also markers of vascular function: a randomized controlled trial in abdominally obese men,” Am J Clin Nutr, (Epub ahead of print).
 A. N. Howard. “The historical development, efficacy and safety of very-low-calorie diets,” Int J Obes, vol. 5, 1981, pp. 195-208.
 S.A. Hosseini, A. Ahangarpour, M. Ghanavati et al., “Review effects of ginseng on improving glycemic status and other related parameters with Type 2 diabetes,” J Clin Exc, vol. 4, 2015, pp. 90-107.
 M. Samadi, F. Zeinaly, S. Ghotbodin Mohammadi, et al., “The relationship between obesity and dietary patterns: review on evidence,” J Clin Exc, vol. 4, 2014, pp. 72-89.
 M. Ghanavati, M. Behrooz, B. Rashidkhani, et al., “Healthy Eating Index in Patients with Cataract: A Case-Control Study,” Iran Red Crescent Med J, vol.17, 2015, e22490.
 S. A. Hosseni, S. Shirali, M. Ghanavati, M. Alipour, “Role of Nutrition in Epigenetic Modulation as a Preventive and Therapeutic Approach for Cancer,” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research & Allied Sciences, vol.5, 2016, pp. 218-226.
 E. Normandin, E. Doucet, R. Rabasa-Lhoret, et al. “Effects of a weight loss program on body composition and the metabolic profile in obese postmenopausal women displaying various obesity phenotypes: a MONET group study,” Appl Physiol Nutr Metab, vol. 40, 2015, pp. 695-702.
 N. M. Byrne, R. L. Weinsier, G. R. Hunter, et al. “Influence of distribution of lean body mass on resting metabolic rate after weight loss and weight regain: comparison of responses in white and black women,” Am J Clin Nutr, vol. 77, 2003, pp. 1368-73.
 I. Janssen, S. B. Heymsfield, R. Ross. “Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability,” J Am Geriatr Soc, vol. 50, 2002, pp. 889-896.
 K. D. Tipton. “Muscle protein metabolism in the elderly: influence of exercise and nutrition,” Can J Appl Physiol, vol. 26, 2001, pp. 588–606.
 W. M. Rand, P. L. Pellett, V. R. Young. “Meta-analysis of nitrogen balance studies for estimating protein requirements in healthy adults,” Am J Clin Nutr, vol. 77, 2003, pp. 109–127.
 S. J. Caton, B. Yinglong, L. Burget, et al. “Low-carbohydrate high-fat diets: regulation of energy balance and body weight regain in rats,” Obesity (Silver Spring), vol. 17, 2009, pp. 283-9.
 D. Gallagher, D. E. Kelley, J. Thornton. “Changes in skeletal muscle and organ size after a weight-loss intervention in overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients,” Am J Clin Nutr, 2016, (Epub ahead of print).
 J. W. Carbone, L. M. Margolis, J. P. McClung, et al. “Effects of energy deficit, dietary protein, and feeding on intracellular regulators of skeletal muscle proteolysis,” FASEB J, vol. 27, 2013, pp. 5104–11.
 W. J. Kraemer, G. Solomon-Hill, B. M. Volk, et al. “The effects of soy and whey protein supplementation on acute hormonal reponses to resistance exercise in men,” J Am Coll Nutr, vol. 32, 2013, pp. 66–74.
 J. Eisenstein, S. B. Roberts, G. Dallal, et al., “Highprotein weight-loss diets: are they safe and do they work? A review of the experimental and epidemiologic data,” Nutrition Reviews, vol. 60, 2002, pp. 189–200.
 German Nutrition Society, Reference Values for Nutrient Intake (Deutsche Gesellschaft f¨ur Ern¨ahrung e. V., DGE, Referenzwerte f¨ur die N¨ahrstoffzufuhr), Neuer Umschau Buchverlag, Neustadt an derWeinstraße, Germany, 2008.
 H. J. Leidy, N.S. Carnell, R. D. Mattes, et al. “Higher protein intake preserves lean mass and satiety with weight loss in pre-obese and obese women,” Obesity (Silver Spring), vol. 15, 2007, pp. 421–9.
 J. A. Gilbert, N. T. Bendsen, A. Tremblay, et al. “Effect of proteins from different sources on body composition,” Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, vol. 21, 2011, pp. 16–31.
 S. Soenen, E. A. P. Martens, A. Hochstenbach-Waelen, et al. “Normal protein intake is required for body weight loss and weight maintenance, and elevated protein intake for additional preservation of resting energy expenditure and fat free mass,” J Nutr, vol. 143, 2013, pp. 591–6.
 E. Farnsworth, N. D. Luscombe, M. Noakes, et al., “Effect of a high-protein, energyrestricted diet on body composition, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 78, 2003, pp. 31–39.
 D. K. Layman, D. A. Walker. “Potential importance of leucine in treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 136, 2006, pp. 319–323.
 M. P. Harber, S. Schenk, A. L. Barkan, et al. “Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction with high protein intake on protein metabolism and the somatotropic axis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 90, 2005, pp. 5175–5181.
 K. J. Petzke, S. Lemke, S. Klaus. “Increased Fat-Free Body Mass and No Adverse Effects on Blood Lipid Concentrations 4 Weeks after Additional Meat Consumption in Comparison with an Exclusion of Meat in the Diet of Young Healthy Women,” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2011, 2011, pp.1-8.
 S. Mettler, N. Mitchell, K. D. Tipton. “Increased protein intake reduces lean body mass loss during weight loss in athletes,” Med Sci Sports Exerc, vol. 42, 2010, pp. 326-37.
 S.M. Pasiakos, J. J. Cao, L. M. Margolis, et al. “Effects of high-protein diets on fat-free mass and muscle protein synthesis following weight loss: a randomized controlled trial,” FASEB J, vol. 27, 2013, pp. 3837-47.
 T. M. Longland, S. Y. Oikawa, C. J. Mitchell, et al. “Higher compared with lower dietary protein during an energy deficit combined with intense exercise promotes greater lean mass gain and fat mass loss: a randomized trial,” Am J Clin Nutr, vol. 103, 2016, pp. 738-46.
 J. Antonio, C. A. Peacock, A. Ellerbroek, et al. “The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals,” J Int Soc Sports Nutr, vol.11, 2014, pp. 19.
 S. Soenen, M. S. Westerterp-Plantenga. “Changes in body fat percentage during body weight stable conditions of increased daily protein intake vs. control,” Physiol Behav, vol. 101, 2010, pp. 635–638.
 K. J. Petzke, S. Lemke, S. Klaus. “Increased fat-free body mass and no adverse effects on blood lipid concentrations 4 weeks after additional meat consumption in comparison with an exclusion of meat in the diet of young healthy women,” J Nutr Metab, vol 2011, Article ID: 210930.