Evaluation of Produced Water Treatment Using Advanced Oxidation Processes and Sodium Ferrate(VI)
Oil and gas exploration is an essential activity for modern society, although the supply of its global demand has caused enough damage to the environment, mainly due to produced water generation, which is an effluent associated with the oil and gas produced during oil extraction. It is the aim of this study to evaluate the treatment of produced water, in order to reduce its oils and greases content (OG), by using flotation as a pre-treatment, combined with oxidation for the remaining organic load degradation. Thus, there has been tested Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) using both Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions, as well as a chemical oxidation treatment using sodium ferrate(VI), Na2[FeO4], as a strong oxidant. All the studies were carried out using real samples of produced water from petroleum industry. The oxidation process using ferrate(VI) ion was studied based on factorial experimental designs. The factorial design was used in order to study how the variables pH, temperature and concentration of Na2[FeO4] influences the O&G levels. For the treatment using ferrate(VI) ion, the results showed that the best operating point is obtained when the temperature is 28 °C, pH 3, and a 2000 mg.L-1 solution of Na2[FeO4] is used. This experiment has achieved a final O&G level of 4.7 mg.L-1, which means 94% percentage removal efficiency of oils and greases. Comparing Fenton and photo-Fenton processes, it was observed that the Fenton reaction did not provide good reduction of O&G (around 20% only). On the other hand, a degradation of approximately 80.5% of oil and grease was obtained after a period of seven hours of treatment using photo-Fenton process, which indicates that the best process combination has occurred between the flotation and the photo-Fenton reaction using solar radiation, with an overall removal efficiency of O&G of approximately 89%.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1340010Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1043
 M. Ebrahimi, et al. "Investigations on the use of different ceramic membranes for efficient oil-field produced water treatment" in Desalination, vol. 250, no. 3, 2010, pp. 991-996.
 F. Ahmadun, et al. "Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment." in Journal of hazardous materials, vol. 170, no. 2, 2009, pp. 530-551.
 J. A. Veil, M. G. Puder, D. Elcock, R. J. Redweik Jr. “A White Paper Describing Produced Water from Production of Crude Oil, Natural Gas and Coal Bed Methane”. U.S. Department of Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory, 2004.
 M. G. Tavares, et al. "Efficiency and toxicity: comparison between the Fenton and electrochemical processes" in Water Science and Technology, vol. 74, no. 5, 2016, pp. 1143-1154.
 U. Hübner, M. Jekel. "Tertiary treatment of Berlin WWTP effluents with ferrate (Fe (VI))." in Water Science and Technology, vol. 68, no. 7, 2013, pp. 1665-1671.
 M. Homolková, et al. "Degradability of hexachlorocyclohexanes in water using ferrate (VI)." in Water Science and Technology, vol. 71, no. 3, 2015, pp. 405-411.
 American Public Health Association (APHA). “Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater”, 20th.ed, New York: APHA, AWWA, WPCR, 2003.
 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). EPA Office of Compliance Sector Notebook Project: Profile of the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry. EPA/310-R-99-006, 2000.
 P. C. A. P. Carvalho. "Caracterização de água produzida na indústria de petróleo para fins de descarte e otimização do processo de separação óleo/água", 2011.
 F. Ahmadun, A. Pendashteh, L. C. Abdullah, D. R. A. Biak, S. S. Madaeni, Z. Z. Abidin. “Review of technologies for oil and gas produced water treatment” in J. Haz. Mat. vol. 170, no. 2-3, pp. 530-551, 2009.
 E. T. R. M. Mendonça, J. M. Ferreira, M. A. Motta Sobrinho. “Treatment of oil water production through combined processes”, in Revista AIDIS, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 89-99, 2013.
 A. L. N. Mota. “Desenvolvimento de um sistema foto-oxidativo visando aplicação no tratamento de águas produzidas em campos de petróleo”. UFRN, 2010.
 R. F. P. Nogueira, A. G. Trovo, M. R. A. Silva, R. D. Villa. “Fundamentos e aplicações ambientais dos processos Fenton e foto-Fenton”, in Quím. Nova, vol.30, no.2, pp.400-408, 2007.
 O. R. S. Rocha. “Avaliação de Diferentes Processos Oxidativos Avançados no Tratamento de Resíduos de Petróleo”. UFRN, 2010.
 B. Barros Neto, I. S. Scarmínio, R. E. Bruns. "Planejamento e Otimizaçăo de Experimentos", 2010.