Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 31532
The Effect of Impact on the Knee Joint Due to the Shocks during Double Impact Phase of Gait Cycle
Abstract:The major contributor to the human locomotion is the knee flexion and extension. During heel strike, a huge amount of energy is transmitted through the leg towards knee joint, which in fact is damped at heel and leg muscles. During high shocks, although it is damped to a certain extent, the balance force transmits towards knee joint which could damage the knee. Due to the vital function of the knee joint, it should be protected against damage due to additional load acting on it. This work concentrates on the development of spring mass damper system which exactly replicates the stiffness at the heel and muscles and the objective function is optimized to minimize the force acting at the knee joint. Further, the data collected using force plate are put into the model to verify its integrity and are found to be in good agreement.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1339964Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1021
 Tongen, Anthony, and Roshna E. Wunderlich. "Biomechanics of running and walking." Mathematics and Sports 43 (2010).
 Milner, Clare E., Irene S. Davis, and Joseph Hamill. "Free moment as a predictor of tibial stress fracture in distance runners." Journal of biomechanics 39, no. 15 (2006): 2819-2825.
 Milner, Clare E., Joseph Hamill, and Irene Davis. "Are knee mechanics during early stance related to tibial stress fracture in runners?" Clinical Biomechanics 22, no. 6 (2007): 697-703.
 Griffin, Michael J. Handbook of human vibration. Academic press, 2012.
 McMahon, Thomas A., Gordon Valiant, and Edward C. Frederick. "Groucho running." Journal of Applied Physiology 62, no. (1987): 2326-2337.
 Lafortune, M. A., and E. M. Hennig. "Cushioning properties of footwear during walking: accelerometer and force platform measurements." Clinical Biomechanics 7, no. 3 (1992): 181-184.
 Gerritsen, Karin GM, Anton J. van den Bogert, and Benno M. Nigg. "Direct dynamics simulation of the impact phase in heel-toe running." Journal of biomechanics 28, no. 6 (1995): 661-668.
 Hunter, Iain. "A new approach to modeling vertical stiffness in heel-toe distance runners." (2003).
 Rapoport, Svetlana, Joseph Mizrahi, Eitan Kimmel, Oleg Verbitsky, and Eli Isakov. "Constant and variable stiffness and damping of the leg joints in human hopping." Journal of biomechanical engineering 125, no. 4 (2003): 507-514.
 Cavagna, G. A., F. P. Saibene, and R. Margaria. "Mechanical work in running." Journal of applied physiology 19, no. 2 (1964): 249-256.
 Cavagna, Giovanni A., Norman C. Heglund, and C. Richard Taylor. "Mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion: two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure." American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 233, no. 5 (1977): R243-R261.
 Blickhan, Reinhard, and ROBERT J. FULL. "Locomotion energetics of the ghost crab: II. Mechanics of the centre of mass during walking and running." Journal of Experimental Biology 130, no. 1 (1987): 155-174.
 Alexander, R. M. "The spring in your step: the role of elastic mechanisms in human running. Biomechanics XI-A." 17-25.
 Blickhan, Reinhard. "The spring-mass model for running and hopping." Journal of biomechanics 22, no. 11-12 (1989): 1217-1227.
 McMahon, Thomas A., and George C. Cheng. "The mechanics of running: how does stiffness couple with speed?" Journal of biomechanics 23 (1990): 65-78.
 Farley, Claire T., and David C. Morgenroth. "Leg stiffness primarily depends on ankle stiffness during human hopping." Journal of biomechanics 32, no. 3 (1999): 267-273.
 Lafortune, Mario A., Ewald M. Hennig, and Mark J. Lake. "Dominant role of interface over knee angle for cushioning impact loading and regulating initial leg stiffness." Journal of biomechanics 29.12 (1996): 1523-1529.
 Winter, David A. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement. John Wiley & Sons, 2009.
 Bennett, M. B., and R. F. Ker. "The mechanical properties of the human subcalcaneal fat pad in compression." Journal of anatomy 171 (1990): 131.