Nutritional Value Determination of Different Varieties of Oats and Barley Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Method for the Horses Nutrition
In horse nutrition, the most suitable cereal for their rations composition could be defined as oats and barley. Oats have high nutritive value because it provides more protein, fiber, iron and zinc than other whole grains, has good taste, and an activity of stimulating metabolic changes in the body. Another cereal – barley is very similar to oats as a feed except for some characteristics that affect how it is used; however, barley is lower in fiber than oats and is classified as a "heavy" feed. The value of oats and barley grain, first of all is dependent on its composition. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has long been considered and used as a significant method in component and quality analysis and as an emerging technology for authenticity applications for cereal quality control. This paper presents the chemical and amino acid composition of different varieties of barley and oats, also digestible energy of different cereals for horses. Ten different spring barley (n = 5) and oats (n = 5) varieties, grown in one location in Lithuania, were assayed for their chemical composition (dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, starch) and amino acids content, digestible amino acids and amino acids digestibility. Also, the grains digestible energy for horses was calculated. The oats and barley samples reflectance spectra were measured by means of NIRS using Foss-Tecator DS2500 equipment. The chemical components: fat, crude protein, starch and fiber differed statistically (P<0.05) between the oats and barley varieties. The highest total amino acid content between oats was determined in variety Flamingsprofi (4.56 g/kg) and the lowest – variety Circle (3.57 g/kg), and between barley - respectively in varieties Publican (3.50 g/kg) and Sebastian (3.11 g/kg). The different varieties of oats digestible amino acid content varied from 3.11 g/kg to 4.07 g/kg; barley different varieties varied from 2.59 g/kg to 2.94 g/kg. The average amino acids digestibility of oats varied from 74.4% (Liz) to 95.6% (Fen) and in barley - from 75.8 % (Tre) to 89.6% (Fen). The amount of digestible energy in the analyzed varieties of oats and barley was an average compound 13.74 MJ/kg DM and 14.85 MJ/kg DM, respectively. An analysis of the results showed that different varieties of oats compared with barley are preferable for horse nutrition according to the crude fat, crude fiber, ash and separate amino acids content, but the analyzed barley varieties dominated the higher amounts of crude protein, the digestible Liz amount and higher DE content, and thus, could be recommended for making feed formulation for horses combining oats and barley, taking into account the chemical composition of using cereal varieties.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1339770Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2020
 T. S. Brand and J. P. Merwe, “Naked oats (Avena nuda) as a substitute for maize in diets for weanling and grower-finisher pigs”, Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 57, pp. 139-147, 1996.
 Å. Lia, H. Andersson, N. Mekki, C. Juhel, M. Senft and D. Lairon, “Postprandial lipemia in relation to sterol and fat excretion in ileostomy subjects given oat bran and wheat test meals”, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 66, pp. 357-365, 1997.
 P. Peltonen-Sainio, M. Kontturi and A. Rajala, “Impact dehulling oat grain to improve quality of on-farm produced feed”, I. Hullability and associated changes in nutritive value and energy content“, Agricultural and Food Science, vol. 13, pp. 18-28, 2004.
 D. M. Peterson, “Oat – a multifunctional grain”, In: P. Peltonen-Sainio, M. Topi-Hulmi (Eds.), Proceedings, 7th International Oat Conference, Agrifood Research Reports 51. MTT Agrifood Research, Jokioinen, Finland, 2004, pp. 21-26.
 E. K. Arendt and E. Zannini, “Oats. Cereal grains for the food and beverage industries”, Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing, pp. 243-282, 2013.
 C. Klose and E. K. Arendt, „Proteins in oats; their synthesis and changes during germination: A review“, Critical Reviews Food Science Nutrition, vol. 52, pp. 629-639, 2012.
 E. Bartnikowska, “Przetwory z ziarna owsa jako źródło ważnych substancji prozdrowotnych w żywieniu człowieka” (Oat grain preparations as a source of important health-related substances in human nutrition). Biul. Inst. Hod. Aklim. Rośl., vol. 229, pp. 235-245, 2003.
 J. Rowe, W. Brown and S. Bird, “Safe and effective grain feeding for horses”, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation, Kingston, ACT, Pub. Vol. 01, no. 148, 2001.
 T. Blake, V. C. Blake, J. G. P. Bowman and H. Abdel-Haleem, “Barley feed uses and quality improvement”, In: Ullrich SE, ed. Barley: Production, Improvement, and Uses. West Sussex, UK, pp. 522-531, 2011.
 S. L. Fairbairn, J. F. Patience, H. L. Classen and R. T. Zijlstra, “The energy content of barley fed to growing pigs: characterizing the nature of its variability and developing prediction equations for its estimation”, Journal of Animal Science, vol. 77, pp. 1502-1512, 1999.
 D. Solà-Oriol, E Roura and D. Torrallardona, “Feed preference in pigs: relationship with feed particle size and texture”, Journal of Animal Science, vol. 87, pp. 571-582, 2009.
 B. K. Baik, “Processing of barley grain for food and feed”, In: Chemistry and Technology, eds. P. R. Shewry and S. E. Ullrich, Barley: St. Paul: AACC International, 2014, pp. 233-268.
 L. M. M. Surber, J. G. P. Bowman, T. K. Blake, D. D. Hinman, D. L. Boss and T. C. Blackhurst, “Prediction of barley feed quality from laboratory analyses”, Proceedings of Western Section of American Society of Animal Science, vol. 51, pp. 454-457, 2000.
 J. D. Pagan, “Measuring the digestible energy content of horse feed”, In: J. D. Pagan (ed). Advances in Equine Nutrition. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, 1998, pp. 71-76.
 B. Svihus, A. K. Uhlen and O. M. Harstad, “Effect of starch granule structure, associated components and processing on nutritive value of cereal starch”, A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., vol. 122, pp. 303-320, 2005.
 P. Åman and C. W. Newman, “Chemical composition of some different types of barley grown in Montana”, Journal of Cereal Science, USA, vol. 4, pp. 133-141, 1986.
 G. S. Robbins, Y. Pomeranz and L. W. Briggle, “Amino acid composition of oat groats”, J. Agr. Food Chem., vol. 19, pp. 536-539, 1971.
 S. D. McMullen, “Oats”, In: Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology. K. J. Lorenz, K. Kulp (eds.), Marcel Decker Inc., New York, 1991, pp. 199-232.
 V. Grove, J. Hepton and C. W. Hunt, “Chemical Composition and Ruminal Fermentability of Barley Grain, Hulls, and Straw as Affected by Planting Date, Irrigation Level, and Variety”, Professional Animal Scientist, vol. 19, pp. 273-280, 2003.
 B. K. Baik and S. E. Ullrich, “Barley for food: characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest”, Journal of Cereal Science, vol. 48, pp. 233-242, 2008.
 M. U. Makeri, I. Nkama and M. H. Badau, “Physico-chemical, malting and biochemical properties of some improved Nigerian barley cultivars and their malts”, International Food Research Journal, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1563-1568, 2013.
 NRC, “Nutrient Requirements of Horses”, 5th Revised Edition. National Academy press, D. C. Washington, 1989, pp. 58.
 D. Sauvant, J. M. Perezaand G. Tran, “Tables of composition and nutritional value of feed materials: pigs, poultry, cattle, sheep, goats, rabbits, horses, fish”, D. Sauvant, J.M. Perez and G. Tran (Eds), Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen and INRA Editions, Versailles, 2004.
 M. Rodehutscord, C. Rückert, H. P. Maurer, H. Schenkel, W. Schipprack, K. E. B. Knudsen, M. Schollenberger, M. Laux, M. Eklund, W. Siegert and R. Mosenthin, “Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes”, Archives of Animal Nutrition, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 87-107, 2016.
 E. Jacyno, “Nutritive value of barley varieties and feed mixtures containing them in pigs feeding”, Ph .D. dissertation, Agricultural University in Szczecin, Poland, 1989.
 R. K. Newman and C. W. Newman, “Barley: Genetics and nutrient composition”, In: Barley for Food and Health: Science, Technology, and Products. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Publication, New Jersey, 2008, pp. 56-94.
 T. Georgieva and P. Zorovski, “The content of non-essential amino acids in the grains of winter and spring varieties of oats (Avena sativa L.) under the conditions of Central Southern Bulgaria”, Agro-knowledge J., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 105-113, 2013.
 W. Biel, E. Jacyno and M. Kawecka, „Chemical composition of hulled, dehulled and naked oat grains“, S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., vol. 44, pp. 189-197, 2014.
 M. Åssveen, “Amino acid composition of spring barley cultivars used in Norway”, Acta Agriculture Scandinavica Section B-Soil and Plant Science, vol. 59. pp. 395-401, 2009.
 M. Bleidere, “Amino acids composition of spring barley genotypes with different protein content”, Acta Biol. Univ. Daugavp. vol. 11, no. 1, 2011.
 W. Biel, K. Bobko and R. Maciorowski, “Chemical composition and nutritive value of husked and naked oats grain”, Journal Cereal Science, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 413-418, 2009.