Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 32009
Detecting Major Misconceptions about Employment in ICT: A Study of the Myths about ICT Work among Females
Abstract:The purpose of the current article is to reveal misconceptions about ICT occupations that keep females away from the field. The study focuses on the three phases in one’s career life cycle: pre-university, university and workplace with the aim of investigating how to attract more females into an ICT-related career. By studying nearly 300 secondary school graduates, 102 university students and 18 female ICT specialists, the study revealed six myths that influence the decision-making process of young girls in pursuing an ICT-related education and career. Furthermore, discriminating conception of ICT as a primarily man’s world is developed before the university period. Stereotypical barriers should be brought out to the public debate, so that a remarkable proportion of possible employees (women) would not stay away from the tech-related fields. Countries could make a remarkable leap in efficiency, when turning their attention to the gender-related issues in the labour market structure.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1128245Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1423
 Aagaard, J. (2015). Drawn to distraction: A qualitative study of off-task use of educational technology. Computers & Technology, 87, 90-97.
 Adya, M. K. (2005). Early determinants of women in the IT workforce: a model of girls’ career choices. Information Technology & People, 18(3), 230-259.
 Aesaert, K., & van Braak, J. (2015). Gender and socioeconomic related differences in performance based ICT competences. Computers & Education, 84, 8-25.
 Anderson, N., Lankshear, C., Timms, C., & Courtney, L. (2008). ‘Because it’s boring, irrelevant and I don’t like computers’: Why high school girls avoid professionally-oriented ICT subjects. Computers & Education, 50, 1304-1318.
 Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman and company.
 Barrow, M., Reilly, B., & Woodfield, R. (2009). The determinants of undergraduate degree performance: how important is gender? British Educational Research Journal, 35, 575-597.
 Belgorodskiy, A., Crump, B., Griffiths, M., Logan, K., Peter, R., & Richardson, H. (2012). The gender pay gap in the ICT labour market: comparative experiences from the UK and New Zealand. New Technology, Work and Employment, 27, 106-119.
 Bury, R. (2010). Women, work and Web 2.0: a case study. New Technology, Work and Employment, 25, 223-237.
 Clayton, D., & Lynch, T. (2002). Ten years of strategies to increase participation of women in computing. SIGCSE Bulletin, 34, 89-93.
 Clayton, K., & Beekhuyzen, J. (2005). Changing ICT career perceptions: Not so geeky? Redress Journal of the Association of Women Educators, 14, 20-25.
 Courtney, L., Timms, C., Lankshear, C., & Anderson, N. (2005). Establishing pathways for girls in ICT: The search for strategies to achieve balance in Queensland. Journal of the Association of Women Educators, 14, 14-19.
 Cox, A. (2009). Visual representations of gender and computing in consumer and professional magazines. New Technology, Work and Employment, 24, 89-106.
 Craig, A., Fisher, J., & Lang, C. (2007). ICT and Girls: The Need for a Large Scale Intervention Programme. Toowoomba: ACIS 2007 Proceeding.
 Croasdell, D. M. (2011). Why don’t more women major in information systems? Information Technology & People, 24(2), 158-183.
 Damaske, S. (2011). A “MAJOR CAREER WOMAN”? How Women Develop Early Expectations about Work. Gender & Society, 25(4), 409-430.
 Eccles, J. S., Barber, B., & Jozefowicz, D. (1999). Linking gender to educational, occupational and recreational choices: Applying the Eccles et al. model of achievement-related choices. In W. B. Swann, J. H. Langlois, & L. A. Gilbert, Sexism and stereotypes in modern society (pp. 153-191). Washington: American Psychological Association.
 Farmer, L. (2008). Teen Girls and Technology: What’s the Problem, What’s the Solution? New York: Teachers College Press.
 Gorbacheva, E., Craig, A., Beekhuyzen, J., & Coldwell-Neilson, J. (2014). ICT interventions for girls: Factors influencing ICT career intentions. Australasian Journal of Information Systems, 18, 289-302.
 Gras-Velasquez, A., Joyce, A., & Debry, M. (2009). Women and ICT: Why are girls still not attracted to ICT studies and careers? . Brussels: European Schoolnet (EUN Partnership AISBL). Retrieved from http://blog.eun.org/insightblog/upload/Women_and_ICT_FINAL.pdf
 Iclaves S.L. (2013). Women active in the ICT sector. Madrid: Iclaves S.L. Retrieved from http://bookshop.europa.eu/is-bin/INTERSHOP.enfinity/WFS/EU-Bookshop-Site/en_GB/-/EUR/ViewPublication-Start?PublicationKey=KK0113432
 Jürgenson, A. M. (2013). Eesti IKT kompetentsidega tööjõu hetkeseisu ja vajaduse kaardistamine. Tallinn: Poliitikauuringute Keskus Praxis.
 Lowrie, T., & Jorgensen, R. (2011). Gender differences in students’ mathematics game playing. Computers & Education, 2244-2248.
 McLaughlin, J. (1999). Gendering occupational identities and IT in the retail sector. New Technology, Work and Employment, 14, 143-156.
 Michie, S. Nelson, D. (2006). Barriers women face in information technology careers. Women in Management Review, 21(1), 10-27.
 Miliszewska, I., & Moore, A. (2010). Encouraging Girls to Consider a Career in ICT: A Review of Strategies. Journal of Information Technology Education: Innovations in Practise, 9, 143-166.
 Miliszewska, I., & Sztendur, E. M. (2010). Interest in ICT Studies and Careers: Perspectives of Secondary School Female Students from Low Socioeconomic Backgrounds. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge, and Management, 5, 237-260.
 Miliszewska, I., Barker, G., Henderson, F., & Sztendur, E. (2006). The Issue of Gender Equity in Computer Science - What Students Say. Journal of Information Technology Education: Research, 5, 107-120.
 Miller, L., Wood, T. A., Halligan, J., Keller, L., Hutchinson-Pike, C., Kornbrot, D., & de Lotz, J. (2000). Saying ‘welcome’ is not enough: women, information systems and equity in work. Career Development International, 5, 379-389.
 Prescott, J., & Bogg, J. (2011). Segregation in a Male-Dominated Industry: Women Working in the Computer Games Industry. International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 3, 205-227.
 Price, S., Jewitt, C., & Crescenzi, L. (2015). The role of iPads in pre-school children's mark making development. Computers & Education, 87, 131-141.
 Raffaele Mendez, L. M., & Crawford, K. M. (2002). Gender-Role Stereotyping and Career Aspirations. The Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 13, 96-107.
 Roberts, M. R., McGill, T. J., & Hyland, P. N. (2012). Attrition from Australian ICT degrees - why women leave. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Australasian Computing Education Conference (ACE2012) (pp. 15-24). Melbourne: Australian Computer Society.
 Ruiz Ben, E. (2007). Defining Expertise in Software: Development While Doing Gender. Gender, Work and Organization, 14, 312-332.
 Sáinz, M., & Eccles, J. (2012). Self-concept of computer and math ability: Gender implications across time and within ICT studies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 486-499.
 Sáinz, M., & López-Sáez, M. (2010). Gender differences in computer attitudes and the choice of technology-related occupations in a sample of secondary students in Spain. Computers & Education, 54, 578-587.
 Sáinz, M., Pálmen, R., & García-Cuesta, S. (2012). Parental and Secondary School Teachers’ Perceptions of ICT Professionals, Gender Differences and their Role in the Choice of Studies. Sex Roles, 235-249.
 Saldaña, J. (2013). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles: SAGE.
 Scherer, R., Siddiq, F., & Teo, T. (2015). Becoming more specific: Measuring and modeling teachers' perceived usefulness of ICT in the context of teaching and learning. Computers & Education, 88, 202-214.
 Shortt, D., & O'Neill, K. (2009). ICT and women. Ottawa: Information Technology Association of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.itac.ca/uploads/pdf/Women_and_ICT.pdf
 Srinivas, S. (2011). Occupational matching into science and technology jobs—gender-based differences. New Technology, Work and Employment, 26, 146-155.
 Stoeger, H., Duan, X., Schirner, S., Greindl, T., & Ziegler, A. (2013). The effectiveness of a one-year online mentoring program for girls in STEM. Computers & Education, 69, 408-418.
 Trauth, E. M. (2002). Odd girl out: An individual differences perspective on women in the IT profession. Information Technology and People, 15, 98-118.
 Trauth, E. Q. (2004). Understanding the under representation of women in IT: Toward a theory of individual differences. Proceedings of the 2004 ACM SIGMIS Conference, (pp. 114-119). Tucson, AZ.
 Valenduc, G. (2011). Not a job for life? Women’s progression, conversion, and dropout, and dropout. International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 3, 483-500.
 Vekiri, I. (2010). Boys’ and girls’ ICT beliefs: Do teachers matter? Computers & Education, 55, 16-23.
 Wilson, F. (2003). Can compute, won’t compute: women’s participation in the culture of computing. New Technology, Work and Employment, 18, 127-142.
 (2013). Women active in the ICT sector. Madrid: Iclaves S. L. Retrieved from Available: http://www.bgwomeninict.org/language/bg/uploads/files/documents__0/documents__32b35cbb8f4815da69c1295eb5c29c99.pdf
 Yang, X., Li, X., & Lu, T. (2015). Using mobile phones in college classroom settings: Effects of presentation mode and interest on concentration and achievement. Computers & Education, 88, 292-302.