The Evaluation of Event Sport Tourism on Regional Economic Development
Event sport tourism (EST) has become an especially important economic sector around the world. As the magnitude continues to grow, attracting more tourists, media, and investment for the host community, and many local areas/regions and states have identified the expenditures by visitors as a potential source of economic or employment growth. The main purposes of this study are to investigate stakeholders’ insights into the feature of hosting EST and using them as a regional development strategy. Continuing the focus of previous literature on the regional development and economic benefits by hosting EST, a total of fıve semi-structured interview questions are designed and a thematic analysis is employed to conduct with eight key sport and tourism decision makers in Atlanta during July to August 2016. Through the depth interviews, the study will contribute to a better understanding of stakeholders’ decision-making, identifying benefits and constraints as well as leveraging the impacts of hosting EST. These findings have provided stakeholders’ perspectives of hosting EST and using them as a reference of regional development in emerging sport tourism markets in the US. Additionally, this study examines key considerations and issues that affect and are critical to reliable understanding of the economic impacts of hosting EST on the regional development, and it will be able to benefit future management authorities (i.e. governments and communities) in their sport tourism development endeavors in defining and hosting successful EST. Furthermore, the insights gained from the qualitative analysis could help other cities/regions analyzing the economic impacts of hosting EST and using it as an instrument of city development strategy.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1128060Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1960
 Albrecht, J. N. (2010). Challenges in tourism strategy implementation in peripheral destination: The case of Stewart Island, New Zealand. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 7(2), 91-110.
 Allen, J., O’Toole, W., McDonnell, I., & Harris, R. (2002). Festivals and special event management (3rd ed.). Australia: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
 Berg, B. L. (2007). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Boston, US: Pearson Education.
 Berridge. G. (2012). The promotion of cycling in London: The impact of the 2007 Tour de France Grand Depart on the image of image and provision of cycling in the capital. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 17 (1), 43-61.
 Bornhorst, T., Ritchie, J. R. B., & Sheehan, L. (2010). Determinants of tourism success for DMOs & destinations: An empirical examination of stakeholders’ perspectives. Tourism Management, 31, 572–589. 168
 Bowdin, G., Allen, J., O’Toole, W., McDonnell, I., & Harris, R. (2006). Events management (2nd ed.). Oxford, England: Butterworth-Heinemann.
 Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77-101.
 Brinkmann, S., & Kvale, S. (2009). InterViews: learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing. (2nd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
 Brown, K. T., Brown, T. N., Jackson, J. S., Sellers, R. M., & Manuel, W. J. (2003). Teammates on and off the field? Contact with black teammates and the racial attitudes of white student athletes. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(7), 1379–1403.
 Bryman, A. (2004). Social research methods. (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
 Chalip, L., & Costa, C.A. (2005). Sport event tourism and the destination brand: Towards a general theory. Sport in Society, 8(2), 218–237.
 Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
 Custido, M. J., & Perna, F. (2008). Importance of events in tourism: Impacts of the UEFA-EURO 2004 on the accommodation industry in Algrave, Portugal. International Journal of Tourism Research, 19(1), 5-22.
 Deery, M., & Jago, L. (2005). The management of sport tourism. Sport in Society, 8(2), 378–389.
 Delpy, L. (1998). An overview of sport tourism: Building towards a dimensional framework. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 4(1), 23-38.
 De Villiers, D. J. (2003). Presentation summaries: Inter-relationship between sport and tourism. Journal of Sport Tourism, 8(2), 94–115.
 Esu, B. B., & Ebitu, E. (2010). Promoting an emerging tourism destination. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 10(1-Ver 1.0), 21-28.
 Fairley, S., Tyler, B. D., Kellett, P., & D’Elia, K. (2011). The Formula One Australian Grand Prix: Exploring the triple bottom line. Sport Management Review, 14, 141–152.
 Fourie, J., & Santana-Gallego, M. (2011). The impact of mega-sport events on tourist arrivals. Tourism Management, 32, 1364-1370.
 Francis, S., & Murphy, P. (2005). Sport tourism destinations: The active sport tourist perspective (pp.73-92). In Sport tourism destinations: Issues, opportunities and analysis. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinman.
 Gammon, S., & Robinson, T. (2003). Sport and tourism: A conceptual framework. Journal of Sport Tourism, 8(1), 21-26.
 Getz, D. (1997). Event management and event tourism. New York, NY: Cognizant Communications Corporation.
 Getz, D. (2003). Bidding on events: Identifying event selection criteria and critical success factors. Journal of Convention & Exhibition Management, 5(2), 1-24.
 Getz, D. (2008). Event tourism: Definition, evolution, and research. Tourism Management, 29, 403-428.
 Getz, D. (2012). Event studies: Theory, research and policy for planned events (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
 Getz, D., & Page, S. J. (2016). Progress in tourism management: Progress and prospects for event tourism research. Tourism Management, 52, 593-631.
 Gibson, H.J., Kaplanidou, K., & Kang, S.J. (2012). Small-scale event sport tourism: A case study in sustainable tourism. Sport Management Review, 15, 160–170.
 Gratton, C., Shibli, S., & Coleman, R. (2005). Sport and economic regeneration in cities. Urban Studies, 42(5/6), 985-999.
 Guest, G., MacQueen, K. M., & Namey, E. E. (2012). Applied thematic analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
 Gursoy, D., Kim, H. J., & Lee, S. B. (2006). The impact of the 2002 World Cup on South Korea: comparisons of pre- and post-games. Tourism Management, 26(6), 38-89.
 Hallmann, K., & Breuer, C. (2010). The impact of image congruence between sport event and destination on behavioural intentions. Tourism Review, 65(1), 66-74.
 Harris, J. (2008). Match day in Cardiff: (Re) imaging and (re)imagining the nation. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 13(4), 297-313.
 Harrison-Hill, T., & Chalip, L. (2005). Marketing sport tourism: Creating synergy between sport and destination. Sport in Society, 8(2), 302-320.
 Higham, J. (1999). Commentary - Sport as an avenue of tourism development: An analysis of the positive and negative impacts of sport tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 2(1), 82–90.
 Higham, J. (2005). Sport tourism destinations: Issues, opportunities and analysis (pp.1-14). In Sport tourism destinations: Issues, opportunities and analysis. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinman.
 Hinch, T., & Higham, J. (2001). Sport tourism: A framework for research. The International Journal of Tourism Research, 3(1), 45–58. 175
 Hinch, T., & Higham, J.E.S. (2011). Sport tourism development. (2nd ed.). Buffalo, NY: Channel View Publications.
 Hodur, N.M., & Leistritz, F.L. (2006). Estimating the economic impact of event tourism: A review of issues and methods. Journal of Convention and Event Tourism, 8(4), 63-79.
 Holloway, I., & Todres, L. (2003). The status of method: Flexibility, consistency and coherence. Qualitative Research, 3(3), 345-357.
 Horne, J. (2007). The four ‘knowns’ of sports mega-events. Leisure Studies, 26(1), 81-96.
 Jones, C. (2005). Mega-events and host-region impacts: Determining the true worth of the 1999 Rugby World Cup. The International Journal of Tourism Research, 3, 241-251.
 Kirovska, Z. (2011). Strategic management within the tourism and the world globalization. UTMS Journal of Economics, 2(1), 69-76.
 Kobayashi, T, Nicholson, M., & Hoye, R. (2011). Football ‘wantok’: Sport and social capital in Vanuatu. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 48(1), 38-53.
 Kotze, N., & Visser, G. (2008). Sport tourism: Comparing participant profiles and impact of three one-day events in South Africa. Africa Insight, 38(3), 41-62.
 Kruger, E.A., & Heath, E.T. (2013). Along came a mega-event: prospects of competitiveness for a 2010 FIFA World Cup host city. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(6), 570–590.
 Lee, S. (2001). A review of economic impact study on sport events. The Sport Journal, 4(2). Retrieved from http://www.thesportjournal.org/journal/2001journal/spring/economic-sport
 Lim, C.C., & Patterson, I. (2008). Sport tourism on the islands: The impact of an international mega golf event. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 13(2), 115-133.
 Mason, D. S., & Duquette, G. H. (2008). Exploring the relationship between local hockey franchises and tourism development. Tourism Management, 29, 1157– 1165.
 Moscardo, G. M. (2005). Peripheral tourism development: Challenges, issues and success factors. Tourism Recreation Research, 30(1), 27-44.
 O’Brien, D., & Chalip, L. (2007). Executive training exercise in sport event leverage. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1(4), 296-304.
 O’Brien, D., & Chalip, L. (2008). Sport events and strategic leveraging: Pushing towards the triple bottom line. In A. Woodside & D. Martin (Eds.), Tourism management: Analysis, behaviour and strategy (pp. 318–338). Wallingford, Oxford: CAB International.
 Oh, I. K. (2002). Effective tourism marketing approaches to sporting events: Lessons from 2002 World Cup. Journal of Sport Tourism, 45-67.
 Parent, M. M. (2008). Evolution and issue patterns for major-sport-event organizing committees and their stakeholders. Journal of Sport Management, 22(2), 135-164.
 Pawlowski, A. (2008). How many dimensions does sustainable development have? Sustainable Development, 16, 81-90.
 Potwarka, L. R., & McCarville, R. (2010). Exploring the trickle-down effect of the Olympics on activity levels within host nations: Suggestions for research and practice. In C. Anagnostopoulos (Ed.), International sport: A research synthesis (pp. 179-190). Athens, Greece: Athens Institute for Education and Research.
 Preuss, H. (2004). The Economics of staging the Olympics. Northampton, MA: E. Elga, Cheltenham, UK.
 Saayman, M., Rossouw, R., & Saayman, A. (2008). Economic impact of visitor spending at the Cape Argus Pick 'n Pay Cycle Tour. Africa Insight, 38(3), 100-122.
 Shipway, R., & Stevenson, N. (2012). Guest editorial: Experiencing sport tourism. Journal of Sport Tourism, 17(2), 81-84.
 Smith, A. (2001). Sporting a new image? In C. Gratton & I. Henry (Eds.), Sport in the city: The role of sport in economic and social regeneration (pp. 127–148). London, UK: Routledge.
 Smith, A. (2005). Reimaging the city: The value of sport initiatives. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(1), 217-236.
 Smith, A. (2009). Theorising the relationship between major sport events and social sustainability. Journal of Sport Tourism, 14(2/3), 109-120.
 Solberg, H. A., & Preuss, H. (2007). Major sport events and long-term tourism impacts. Journal of Sport Management, 21, 213-234.
 Stokes, R. (2008). Tourism strategy making: Insights to the events tourism domain. Tourism Management, 29, 252-262.
 Swart, K., & Bob, U. (2007). The eluding link: Toward developing a national sport tourism strategy in South Africa beyond 2010. Politikon, 34(3), 373-391.
 Swart, K., Bob, U., & Arrey, V. M. (2008). Sport events and their socio-economic impact: Residents' perceptions of the Isuzu Berg River Canoe Marathon. Africa Insight, 38(3), 123-134.
 Tao, T.C.H., & Wall, G. (2009). Tourism as a sustainable livelihood strategy. Tourism Management, 30, 90-98.
 Telfer, D. (2009). Development studies and tourism. In Jamal, T. & Robinson, M. (eds.), The SAGE handbook of tourism studies (pp. 146-165). London, UK: SAGE Publications Inc.
 The Atlanta Sports Council (2016). Sports in Atlanta. Retrieved May 31, 2016, from http://www.metroatlantachamber.com/atlanta/sports-events.
 Timur, S., & Getz D. (2008). Sustainable tourism development: How do destination stakeholders perceive sustainable urban tourism? Sustainable Development, 15, 329-342.
 Weed, M. (2007). Editorial: Event sports tourism. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 12(1), 1-4.
 Weed, M., & Bull, C.J. (2009). Sports tourism: participants, policy and providers 2nd edn. Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
 Weidenfeld, A., & Leask, A. (2013). Exploring the relationship between visitor attractions and events: Definitions and management factors. Current Issues in Tourism, 16(6), 552–569.
 World Sport Destination Expo: Sport Tourism. Retrieved March 31, 2016, from http://www.sporttourismexpo.com/sport-tourism
 Ziakas, Z. (2010). Understanding an event portfolio: The uncovering of interrelationships, synergies, and leveraging opportunities. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure & Events, 2(2), 144–164.
 Zima, K. (2012). Event tourism economical and tourstic impacts on regional economy: A study of Polish regions preparations for UEFA EURO 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2016, from http://sh.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:444721/FULLTEXT01