Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31532
An Overview on the Effectiveness of Brand Mascot and Celebrity Endorsement

Authors: Isari Pairoa, Proud Arunrangsiwed


Celebrity and brand mascot endorsement have been explored for more than three decades. Both endorsers can effectively transfer their reputation to corporate image and can influence the customers to purchase the product. However, there was little known about the mediators between the level of endorsement and its effect on buying behavior. The objective of the current study is to identify the gab of the previous studies and to seek possible mediators. It was found that consumer’s memory and identification are the mediators, of source credibility and endorsement effect. A future study should confirm the model of endorsement, which was established in the current study.

Keywords: Product endorsement, memory, identification theory, source credibility, unintentional effect.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1934


[1] R. B. Fireworker and H. H. Friedman, “The effects of endorsements on product evaluation,” Decision Sciences, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 576-583, 1977.
[2] A. Pohlman and S. Mudd, “Market image as a function of consumer group and product type: A quantitative approach,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 167, 1973.
[3] L. Berkowitz and E. Rawlings, “Effects of film violence on inhibitions against subsequent aggression,” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 405, 1963.
[4] L. D. Eron, “Relationship of TV viewing habits and aggressive behavior in children,” The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 193, 1963.
[5] P. Arunrangsiwed, “The Documentary Analysis of Meta-Analysis Research in Violence of Media,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 77-80, 2014.
[6] S. Hearold, “A synthesis of 1043 effects of television on social behavior,” Public communication and behavior, vol. 1, pp. 65-133, 1986.
[7] M. Story and S. French, “Food advertising and marketing directed at children and adolescents in the US,” International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1, 2004.
[8] B. Šramová, “Media literacy and Marketing Consumerism Focused on Children,” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 141, pp. 1025-1030, 2014.
[9] P. Aneaktumkul, “The impact of the Celebrity who are leaders in offering products and brand advertising,” Thammasat University (Thesis in Marketing), 2010.
[10] G. Şimşek, “Celebrity Endorsement: How It Works When a Celebrity Fits the Brand and Advertisement,” International Journal of Social, Business, Psychological, Human Science and Engineering by World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 994-1002, 2014.
[11] C. C. Tsai, “The Conditioning Effect on Celebrity Multiple Endorsements,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 6, p. 821-825, 2012.
[12] T. B. Cornwell, “Sponsorship-linked marketing development,” Sports Marketing Quarterly, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 13–24, 1995.
[13] L. R. Kahle and P. M. Homer, “Physical Attractiveness of the Celebrity Endorser: A Social Adaptation Perspective,” The Journal of Consumer Research, vol.11, no. 4, p. 954-961. 1985,
[14] T. Kumkale, D. Albarracin, and P. J. Seignourel, “The Effects of Source Credibility in the Presence or Absence of Prior Attitudes: Implications for the Design of Persuasive Communication Campaigns,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, vol. 40, p. 1325-1356, 2010.
[15] C. Bunnag and B. Arree, “The Multidimensional Scaling Technique (MDS) for Analyzing Facial Tissue Brand,” Journal of Business, Economics and Communications: BEC Journal (วารสารบริหารธุรกิจ เศรษฐศาสตร์และการสื่อสาร), vol. 9, No. 2, 2014.
[16] K. Clow and D. Baack, “Integrated advertising promotion and marketing communication,” Prentice Hall. 2007.
[17] C. Songprayoon, “The Study of the Use Celebrities in Television Commercial advertisements,” Chulalongkorn University (Master Degree Thesis in Mass Communication), 1993.
[18] R. Gizauskas, "Scott Disick DESTROYED on Instagram after a huge product placement fail", Mirror, 20 May 2016, URL: . Retrieve in 9 July 2016.
[19] P. Chaosiri and O. Biggins, “Consumer’ Attitude towards Advertisement of Celebrity in Bangkok: Case study Instagram,” National Institude of Development Adminstration, June 2015.
[20] D. E. Alvermann, J. S. Moon, and M. C. Hagood, “Popular Culture in the Classroom: Teaching and Researching Critical Media Literacy,” Literacy Studies Series. International Reading Association, 800 Barksdale Road, PO Box 8139, Newark, DE 19714-8139; Web site: http://www. reading. org. (1999)
[21] T. J. Hindin, I. R. Contento and J. D. Gussow, “A media literacy nutrition education curriculum for head start parents about the effects of television advertising on their children’s food requests,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 104, no. 2, pp. 192-198, 2004.
[22] E. W. Eintraub, A. Kristine, and K. Johnson, “Effects of general and alcohol-specific media literacy training on children's decision making about alcohol,” Journal of health communication, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 17-42, 1997.
[23] T. Reichert, M. S. LaTour, J. J. Lambiase, and Adkins, M. “A test of media literacy effects and sexual objectification in advertising,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 81-92, 2007.
[24] P. Arunrangsiwed, “Like Me & Follow Me: A Relationship between Homophily and Belief of Superheroes’ Fans,” Journal of communication arts review (นิเทศศาสตรปริทัศน์), vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 35–50, 2015.
[25] L. E. McCutcheon, “Machiavellianism, Belief in a Just World, and the Tendency to Worship Celebrities,” Current Research in Social Psychology of The University of Iowa, vol. 8, no. 9, 2003.
[26] S. S. Kim, J. Lee and B. Prideaux, “Effect of celebrity endorsement on tourists’ perception of corporate image, corporate credibility and corporate loyalty,” International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 37, pp. 131-145, 2014.
[27] I. Pairoa and P. Arunrangsiwed, “The Effect of Brand Mascots on Consumers' Purchasing Behaviors,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1612-1615, 2016.
[28] Maturin Thamsongsana, “The Thematic Analysis of Factors in creating Yurukyara: The Case study of Kumamon and Funassyi (ゆるキャラの成功要因の研究-くまモンとふなっしーを事例に-),” Chiangmai University (Master Degree Thesis in Japanese Language and Literature), 2015.
[29] P. Mongkolprasit and P. Arunrangsiwed, “Further the Future: The Exploratory Study in 3D Animation Marketing Trend and Industry in Thailand,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic, Business and Industrial Engineering, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 994-1001, 2016.
[30] P. S. Wei and H. P. Lu, “An examination of the celebrity endorsements and online customer reviews influence female consumers’ shopping behavior,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 193-201, 2013.
[31] J. Antonakis, S. Bendahan, P. Jaquart, and R. Lalive, “On making causal claims: A review and recommendations,” Leadership Quarterly, vol. 21, pp. 1086-1120. 2010
[32] R. Ohanian, “Construction and Validation of a Scale to Measure Celebrity Endorsers’ Perceived Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness,” Journal of Advertising, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 39-52, 1990.
[33] D. Aydin, “Trust In Ad Media,” International Journal of Social, Business, Psychological, Human Science and Engineering by World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 546-550, 2013.
[34] M. Kang, “Measuring social media credibility: A study on a Measure of Blog Credibility”, Institute of Public Relations, 2010.
[35] P. Rattanachat and S. Chaiprasit, “Source Credibility and Retailing Strategy affecting the Purchasing Decision upon Cosmetics on Department of Working Group Women in Bangkok Area,” Suthiparithat, Vol. 28, No. 88, October – December 2014.
[36] J. C. Mowen, “On product endorser effectiveness: A balance model approach,” Current Issues and Research in Advertising, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 41-57, 1980.
[37] M. Garofalo, “The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Teaching Critical Media Literacy with Disney,” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 106, pp. 2822-2831, 2013.
[38] H. Klein and K. S. Shiffman, “Messages about physical attractiveness in animated cartoons,” Body Image, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 353-363, 2006.
[39] C. I. Hovland, I. L. Janis and H. H. Kelley, Communication and Persuasion: Psychological Studies of Opinion Change, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1953.
[40] D. E. Bennett and P. Thompson, “Use of anthropomorphic brand mascots for student motivation and engagement: a promotional case study with Pablo the penguin at the University of Portsmouth Library,” New Review of Academic Librarianship, pp. 1-13. 2016.
[41] J. S. Chiou, C. Y. Huang, and M. C. Chuang, “Antecedents of Taiwanese adolescents' purchase intention toward the merchandise of a celebrity: The moderating effect of celebrity adoration,” The Journal of social psychology, vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 317-334, 2005.
[42] P. A. Mongeau and J. B. Stiff, “Specifying causal relationships in the Elaboration Likelihood Model,” Communication Theory, vol. 3, pp. 65-72, 2006.
[43] R. E. Petty, J. T. Cacioppo, and R. Goldman, “Personal involvement as a determinant of argument-based persuasion,” Journal of personality and social psychology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 847-855, 1981.
[44] L. Sliburyte, “How celebrities can be used in advertising to the best advantage?,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, pp. 920-925. 2009.
[45] M. Allen, J. B. Stiff, “Testing three models for the sleeper effect,” Western Journal of Communication, vol. 53, p. 411-426. 1989,
[46] N. Uymanachai, “Online Influencer and the Power of Word-of-Mouth”, Executive Journal of Bangkok University, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 47-51, 2013.
[47] K. Burke, “A rhetoric of motives,” University of California Press, vol. 111, 1969.
[48] T. L. Fond and J. Neville, “Randomization Tests for Distinguishing Social Influence and Homophily Effects,” in Proc. The International World Wide Web Conference Committee (IW3C2), April 26–30, 2010.
[49] S. Ismail and R. A. Latif, “Authenticity Issues of Social Media: Credibility, Quality and Reality,” International Journal of Social, Business, Psychological, Human Science and Engineering by World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 247-254, 2013.
[50] K. Freund and D. Fielding, “Research ethics in fan studies,” Participations, vol. 10, no. 1, 2013
[51] D. Byrne, The Attraction Paradigm, New York: Academic Press. 1971,
[52] S. McCloud, “Understanding comics: The invisible art,” Tundra Publishing. ISBN 1-56862-019-5. 1993.
[53] H. H. Friedman and L. W. Friedman, “Endorser effectiveness by product type,” Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 63-71, 1979.
[54] G. McCracken, “Who is the celebrity endorser? Cultural foundations of the endorsement process,” Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 16, no. 3, p. 310-321, 1989.
[55] K. Amnajtalerngsak, “Factor in using the brand ambassadors from KBANK e-Girls contest has effect through customers' perception and behavior of Kasikorn Bank PLC. in Bangkok area,” Bangkok University (Master Degree Thesis in Business Administration), February 2012.
[56] D. V. Hoolwerff, “Does your mascot match your brand’s personality? An empirical study on how visual characteristics of a brand mascot can function as a tool for transmitting an archetypical brand personality,” University of Twente (Master Degree Thesis in Communication Science), 2014.
[57] J. Mowen and M. Minor, Consumer behavior. 1st ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. 2000.
[58] S. R. Hall, Retail advertising and selling. McGraw-Hill. 1924.
[59] J. H. Kim, J. R. Ritchie, and V. W. S. Tung, “The effect of memorable experience on behavioral intentions in tourism: A structural equation modeling approach,” Tourism Analysis, vol. 15, no.6, pp. 637-648, 2010.
[60] M. Muda, R. Musa, R. N. Mohamed, and H. Borhan, “Celebrity entrepreneur endorsement and advertising effectiveness,” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 130, pp. 11-20, 2014.
[61] V. K. Pozios, P. R. Kambam, and H. E. Bender, Does Media Violence Lead to the Real Thing?. New York Times. 2013.
[62] D. Morrison, “Brave: A Feminist Perspective on the Disney Princess Movie,” California Polytechnic State University (Doctoral dissertation), San Luis Obispo, 2014.
[63] C. Porter-Phillips, “The Effects of Disney Princess Movies on Girls,” Unpublished Article, 2014.
[64] T. S. Garland, K. A. Branch, and M. Grimes, “Blurring the lines reinforcing rape myths in comic books,” Feminist criminology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 48-68, 2015.
[65] S. Wilde, “Repackaging the Disney Princess: A Post-feminist Reading of Modern Day Fairy Tales,” Journal of Promotional Communications, vol. 2, no. 1, 2014.
[66] B. Šramová, “Aggressive Marketing, Consumer Kids and Stereotyping of Media Contents. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,” vol. 140, pp. 255-259. 2014.
[67] S. J. Kirsh, “Cartoon violence and aggression in youth,” Aggression and Violent Behavior, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 547-557. 2006.
[68] J. M. Ostrov, D. A. Gentile, and N. R. Crick, “Media exposure, aggression and prosocial behavior during early childhood: A longitudinal study,” Social Development, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 612-627, 2006.
[69] B. Krahé, R. Busching, and I. Möller, “Media violence use and aggression among German adolescents: associations and trajectories of change in a three-wave longitudinal study,” Psychology of Popular Media Culture, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 152, 2012.
[70] C. J. Carpenter, “Narcissism on Facebook: Self-promotional and anti-social behavior,” Personality and individual differences, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 482-486, 2012.
[71] E. Scharrer, “Third-person perception and television violence the role of out-group stereotyping in perceptions of susceptibility to effects,” Communication Research, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 681-704, 2002.
[72] B. N. Songkhla, “Decision Making in Fashion Products Purchasing on E-commerce: A case study in Bangkok,” SSRU Journal of Management Science, vol. 1, no. 1, 2014.
[73] P. Saeng-on. “Human Resource Management for the Achievement in Buddhism Aspect (สู่ความสำเร็จในการทำงานตามหลักพุทธธรรม),” SSRU Journal of Management Science, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 12-16, 2014.
[74] S. Saengsri, “Open Views on Products and Culture of Myanmar into AEC,” SSRU Journal of Management Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 74-89, 2015.
[75] P. Arunrangsiwed and Rosechongporn Komolsevin, “The Documentary Analysis of Mixed Method Used in Digital Advertising Research,” SSRU Journal of Management Science, vol. 1, no. 1, 2014.
[76] S. Somsert, “Human Alienation in Modern Society,” Executive Journal of Bangkok University, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 66-74, 2013.
[77] L. Sliburyte, “Children and Advertising: Issues in Consumer Socialization Process,” World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, p. 1387-1391. 2009.
[78] P. Sumrejkitcharoen. “The Outcome of Group Process Learning Technique Promoting Thinking Skill: A Case Study of Business Computer Students,” Faculty of Management Science, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, SSRU Journal of Management Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 45-57, 2015.
[79] M. J. Hogan, “Prosocial effects of media,” Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 635-645. 2012.
[80] P. Thongthiang. “Strength Communities in Protection and Solution of Narcotics Problem to Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy,” SSRU Journal of Management Science, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 58-73, 2015.