Effects of Cellular Insulin Receptor Stimulators with Alkaline Water on Performance, Plasma Cholesterol, Glucose, Triglyceride Levels and Hatchability in Breeding Japanese Quail
Aim of this study is to determine the effects of cellular insulin receptor stimulators on performance, plasma glucose, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, triglyceride, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) hormone levels, and incubation features in the breeding Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica). In the study, a total of 84 breeding quails was used, 6 weeks’ age, 24 are male and 60, female. Rations used in experiment are 2900 kcal/kg metabolic energy and 20% crude protein. Water pH is calibrated to 7.45. Ration and water were administered ad-libitum to the animals. As metformin source, metformin-HCl was used and as chrome resource, chromium picolinate was used. Trial groups were formed as control group (basal ration), metformin group (basal ration, added metformin at the level of feed of 20 mg/kg), and chromium picolinate (basal ration, added feed of 1500 ppb Cr) group. When regarded to the results of performance at the end of experiment, it is seen that live weight gain, feed consumption, egg weight, feed conversion ratio (Feed consumption/ egg weight), and egg production were affected at the significant level (p < 0.05). When the results are evaluated in terms of incubation features, hatchability and hatchability of fertile egg ratio were not affected from the treatments. Fertility ratio was significantly affected by metformin and chromium picolinate treatments and fertility rose at the significant level compared to control group (p < 0.05). According to results of experiment, plasma glucose level was not affected by metformin and chromium picolinate treatments. Plasma, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were significantly affected from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p < 0.05). Hormone level of Plasma T3 and T4 were also affected at the significant level from insulin receptor stimulators added to ration (p < 0.05).
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1127529Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 852
 N. Sarkar, ''Gluconeogenesis and the factors that control the process in chickens'', Life sciences, 1971, pp.(10) 293-300.
 M. Watford, Y. Hod, Y.B. Chiao, M.F. Utter, R.W. Hanson,'' The unique role of the kidney in gluconeogenesis in the chicken. The significance of a cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase'', Journal of Biological Chemistry, 1981, pp. (256) 10023-10027.
 M. Watford, ''Hormonal and nutritional regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels in chicken kidney'', The Journal of nutrition, 1989, pp. (119) 319-322.
 P.S. Belo, D.R. Romsos, G.A. Leveille, Blood metabolites and glucose metabolism in the fed and fasted chicken, J. Nutr, 106 (1976) 135-131.
 T.F. Davison, D.R. Langslow, ''Changes in plasma glucose and liver glycogen following the administration of gluconeogenic precursors to the starving fowl'', Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology, 1975, pp. (52) 645-649.
 G.A. Bray, ''Drug treatment of obesity'', Reviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders, 2001, pp.(2) 403-418.
 K. Cusi, R.A. DeFronzo, ''Metformin: a review of its metabolic effects'', Diabetes Rev., 1998, pp.(6) 89–131.
 A. Lee, J.E. Morley, ''Metformin Decreases Food Consumption and Induces Weight Loss in Subjects with Obesity with Type II Non‐Insulin‐Dependent Diabetes'', Obesity research, 1998, pp. (6) 47-53.
 J. Rouru, R. Huupponen, U. Pesonen, M. Koulu, ''Subchronic treatment with metformin produces anorectic effect and reduces hyperinsulinemia in genetically obese Zucker rats'', Life sciences, 1992, pp.(50) 1813-1820.
 J. McMurtry, R. Rosebrough, N. Steele,'' A homologous radioimmunoassay for chicken insulin'', Poultry science, 1983, pp.(62) 697-701.
 C. Ashwell, J. McMurtry, ''Hypoglycemia and reduced feed intake in broiler chickens treated with metformin'', Poultry science, 2003, pp. (82) 106-110.
 M. Otto, J. Breinholt, N. Westergaard, ''Metformin inhibits glycogen synthesis and gluconeogenesis in cultured rat hepatocytes'', Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 2003, pp. (5) 189-194.
 A. Kiersztan, A. Modzelewska, R. Jarzyna, E. Jagielska, J. Bryła, ''Inhibition of gluconeogenesis by vanadium and metformin in kidney-cortex tubules isolated from control and diabetic rabbits'', Biochemical pharmacology, 2002, pp. (63) 1371-1382.
 S. Okada, H. Tsukada, H. Ohba, ''Enhancement of nucleolar RNA synthesis by chromium (III) in regenerating rat liver'', Journal of inorganic biochemistry, 1984, pp. (21) 113-124.
 T.G. Page,'' Chromium, tryptophan, and picolinate in diets for pigs and poultry'' A. dissertation Lousiana State University U. S. A, 1991.
 N.C. Steele, R.W. Rosebrough, ''Effect of trivalent chromium on hepatic lipogenesis by the turkey poult'', Poultry science, 1981, pp. (60) 617-622.
 NRC, Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, in: N.R. Council (Ed.), National Academy Press Washington DC., 1989.
 R.S. Gibson, ''Assessment of trace element status in humans, Progress in'' food & nutrition science, 1988, pp. (13) 67-111.
 H.A. Schroeder, ''Losses of vitamins and trace minerals resulting from processing and preservation of foods'', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 197, pp. (24) 562-573.
 NRC, Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, in: N.R. Council (Ed.) National Research Council, National Academy Press Washington DC., 1994.
 O. Düzgüneş, T. Kesici, F. Gürbüz, ''İstatistik Metotları'' I., A.Ü. Ziraat Fakültesi Yayınları 1984.
 R.W. Rosebrough, C.M. Ashwell, ''Dietary metformin effects on in vitro and in vivo metabolism in the chicken'', Nutrition research, 2005, pp. (25) 491-497.
 B. Kroliczewska, W. Zawadzki, Z. Dobrzanski, A. Kaczmarek‐Oliwa, ''Changes in selected serum parameters of broiler chicken fed supplemental chromium'', J Anim Physiol, 2004, pp. (88) 393-400.
 T. Lien, Y. Horng, K. Yang, ''Performance, serum characteristics, carcase traits and lipid metabolism of broilers as affected by supplement of chromium picolinate'', British poultry science, 1999, pp. (40) 357-363.
 C. Yufang, ''Studies on effect of yeast chrome on sperm quality of breeder cocks under heat stress and its action mechanism'', Journal of Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 2007, pp. (35) 20-29.
 L. Ibáñez, N. Potau, A. Ferrer, F. Rodriguez-Hierro, M.V. Marcos, F. de Zegher, ''Anovulation in eumenorrheic, nonobese adolescent girls born small for gestational age: insulin sensitization induces ovulation, increases lean body mass, and reduces abdominal fat excess, dyslipidemia, and subclinical hyperandrogenism'', The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2000, pp. (87) 5702-5705.
 M.A. Cupo, W.E. Donaldson, ''Chromium and vanadium effects on glucose metabolism and lipid synthesis in the chick'', Poultry science, 1987, pp.(66) 120-126.
 K. Şahin, O. Küçük, N. Şahin, O. Ozbey, ''Effects of dietary chromium picolinate supplementation on egg production, egg quality and serum concentrations of insulin, corticosterone, and some metabolites of Japanese quails'', Nutrition Research, 2001, pp.(21) 1315-1321.
 T. Sato, A. Toyoshima, T. Hiraki, Y. Ohta, K. Katayama, T. Arai, H. Tazaki, ''Effects of metformin on plasma concentrations of glucose and mannose, G6Pase and PEPCK activity, and mRNA expression in the liver and kidney of chickens'', British poultry science, 201, pp. (52) 273-277.
 J.R. Komorowski, H.J. Dela, W.T. Cefalu, ''LA-cp rats show improved lipid profiles in response to diets containing chromium picolinate and biotin'' Meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, Philadelphia, 2001.
 F. Uyanik, Ş. Kaya, A.H. Kolsuz, M. Eren, N. Şahin,'' The effect of chromium supplementation on egg production, egg quality and some serum parameters in laying hens'', Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 2002, pp. (26) 379-387.
 W.-L. Chen, H.-W. Wei, W.-Z. Chiu, C.-H. Kang, T.-H. Lin, C.-C. Hung, M.-C. Chen, M.-S. Shieh, C.-C. Lee, H.-M. Lee, 'Metformin regulates hepatic lipid metabolism through activating AMP-activated protein kinase and inducing ATGL in laying hens'', European journal of pharmacology, 2011, pp.(671) 107-112.