Ingenious Use of Hypo Sludge in M25 Concrete
Authors: Abhinandan Singh Gill
Paper mill sludge is one of the major economic and environmental problems for paper and board industry, million tonnes quantity of sludge is produced in the world. It is essential to dispose these wastes safely without affecting health of human being, environment, fertile land; sources of water bodies, economy as it adversely affect the strength, durability and other properties of building materials based on them. Moreover, in developing countries like India where there is low availability of non-renewable resources and large need of building material like cement therefore it is essential to develop eco-efficient utilization of paper sludge. Primarily in functional terms paper sludge comprises of cellulose fibers, calcium carbonate, china clay, low silica, residual chemical bonds with water. The material is sticky and full of moisture content which is hard to dry. The manufacturing of paper usually produce loads of solid waste. These paper fibers are recycled in paper mills to limited number of times till they become weak to produce high quality paper. Thereafter, these left out small and weak pieces called as low quality paper fibers are detached out to become paper sludge. The material is by-product of de-inking and re-pulping of paper. This hypo sludge includes all kinds of inks, dyes, coating etc inscribed on the paper. This paper presents an overview of the published work on the use of hypo sludge in M25 concrete formulations as a supplementary cementitious material exploring its properties such as compressive strength, splitting and parameters like modulus of elasticity, density, applications and most importantly investigation of low cost concrete by using hypo sludge are presented.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1127334Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 892
 M. B. Rajgor, J. Pitroda, “A Study on Paper Industry Waste: Opportunities for development of Low Cost Concrete in Indian Context,” International Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 2, no. 2, Feb. 2013.
 R.Balamurugan and R.Karthickraja, “An Experimental Investigation of Partial replacement of Cement by Industrial Waste (Hypo Sludge),” International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, vol. 4, no. 1, April 2014, pp. 430-435.
 R. Srinivasan and M. Palanisamy, “Experimental Investigation In developing Low Cost Concrete from Paper Industry Waste,” M. Engg. Thesis report, Department of Civil Engineering, Tamilnadu College of Engineering, Karumatham Patti, Coimbatore-641659, Tamilnadu, India.
 R. Garcıa, R. Vigil de la Villa, I. Vegas , M. Frıas and M. I. Sanchez de Rojas, “The pozzolanic properties of paper sludge waste,” Construction Building Material , vol. 22, pp. 1484–90, 2008.
 M. Frias, MI. Sanchez de Rojas and J. Rivera, “Influence of calcining conditions on pozzolanic activity and reaction kinetics in paper sludge-calcium hydroxide mixes,” Proceedings of the 8 CANMET/ ACI international conference on fly ash, silica fume, slag and natural pozzolans in concrete, Las Vegas, pp. 879–86, 2004.
 J. pitroda, L. B. Zala and F. S. Umrigar, “Innovative Use of Paper Industry Waste (Hypo sludge) in design mix concrete,” International Journal of Advanced Engineering Technology, vol. 4, no. 1, Jan-March 2013.
 J. Pitroda, L. B. Zala and Dr. F. S. Umrigar, “Utilisation of Hypo Sludge by Eco-Efficient Development of Rigid Pavement in Rural Roads,” International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT), vol. 4, no. 9, Sep. 2013.
 M. Ismail, M.A. Ismail, S.K. Lau, B. Muhammad and Z. Majid, “Fabrication of Bricks from Paper Sludge and Palm Oil Fuel Ash,” Concrete Research Letters, vol. 1, no. 2, June 2010.
 W. Tangchirapat, J. Tangpagasit, S. Waew-kum and C. Jaturapitakkul, “A new pozzolanic material from palm oil fuel ash, Res. Develop J.26, pp. 459-473, 2003
 J. H. Tay, “Ash from oil-palm waste as concrete material,” J. Mater. Civil Eng. ASCE, vol. 2, pp. 94-105, 1990.
 British Standard Institution, BS 4550: 1978 Methods of Testing Cement – Part 3: Physical Tests- Section 3.4 Strength Tests.
 British Standard Institution BS 6073: 2008 Part1: Guide for specifying precast concrete masonry units.
 British Standard Institution, BS 6073: 2008 Part 2: Method for specifying precast concrete masonry units.
 J. V. Solanki and J. Pitroda, “Study of Modulus of Elasticity of concrete with Partial Replacement of Cement by Hypo Sludge Waste from Paper industry,” Global Research Analysis, vol. 2, no. 1, Jan. 2013.
 J. R. Pitroda, F. S. Umrigar, “Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Cement by Thermal Industry Waste (Fly Ash) and Paper Industry Waste (Hypo Sludge),” International Journal of Engineering Science and Innovative Technology, vol. 2, no. 1, Jan. 2013.
 J. Pitroda, L.B. Zala, F.S. Umrigar, “Durability of concrete with Partial Replacement of Cement by Paper Industry Waste (Hypo Sludge),” International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering, vol. 2, no. 3, Feb. 2013.
 Z. Ozdemir, “Capillary water absorption potential of some building materials,” Geol Eng., vol. 26, pp. 19-32, 2009.
 H. M. Algin and P. Turgut, “Cotton and limestone powder wastes as brick materials,” Construction Building Material, vol. 22, pp. 1074-1080, 2008.