Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31515
Seismic Fragility Curves for Shallow Circular Tunnels under Different Soil Conditions

Authors: Siti Khadijah Che Osmi, Syed Mohd Ahmad


This paper presents a methodology to develop fragility curves for shallow tunnels so as to describe a relationship between seismic hazard and tunnel vulnerability. Emphasis is given to the influence of surrounding soil material properties because the dynamic behaviour of the tunnel mostly depends on it. Four ground properties of soils ranging from stiff to soft soils are selected. A 3D nonlinear time history analysis is used to evaluate the seismic response of the tunnel when subjected to five real earthquake ground intensities. The derived curves show the future probabilistic performance of the tunnels based on the predicted level of damage states corresponding to the peak ground acceleration. A comparison of the obtained results with the previous literature is provided to validate the reliability of the proposed fragility curves. Results show the significant role of soil properties and input motions in evaluating the seismic performance and response of shallow tunnels.

Keywords: Fragility analysis, seismic performance, tunnel lining, vulnerability.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1036


[1] Y. M. a. Hashash, J. J. Hook, B. Schmidt, and J. I-Chiang Yao, “Seismic design and analysis of underground structures,” Tunn. Undergr. Sp. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 247–293, Oct. 2001.
[2] A. Brito and M. Lopes, “New methodology for the Seismic Design of Large Underground Structures,” in 15 WCEE LISBOA 2012, 2012.
[3] J. H. Wood, “Earthquake Design of Rectangular Underground Structures,” Bull. New Zeal. Soc. Earthq. Eng., vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2007.
[4] H. Huo, A. Bobet, G. Fernández, and J. Ramírez, “Load Transfer Mechanisms between Underground Structure and Surrounding Ground: Evaluation of the Failure of the Daikai Station,” J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng., vol. 131, no. 12, pp. 1522–1533, 2005.
[5] Y. M. a. Hashash, J. J. Hook, B. Schmidt, and J. I-Chiang Yao, “Seismic design and analysis of underground structures,” Tunn. Undergr. Sp. Technol., vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 247–293, Oct. 2001.
[6] S. A. Argyroudis and K. D. Pitilakis, “Seismic fragility curves of shallow tunnels in alluvial deposits,” Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., vol. 35, pp. 1–12, 2012.
[7] B. Maidl, M. Thewes, and U. Maidl, Handbook of Tunnel Engineering II: Basics and Additional Services for Design and Construction. Wiley, Ernst and Sohn, 2014, pp. 25–29.
[8] S. Argyroudis, G. Tsinidis, F. Gatti, and K. Pitilakis, “Seismic fragility curves of shallow tunnels considering SSI and aging effects,” in 2nd Eastern European Tunnelling Conference “Tunnelling in a Challenging Environment,” 2014, pp. 1–10.
[9] S. Argyroudis and A. M. Kaynia, “Fragility Functions of Highway and Railway Infrastructure,” in SYNER-G: Typology Definition and Fragility Functions for Physical Elements at Seismic Risk, vol. 27, S. Argyroudis and A. M. Kaynia, Eds. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2014, pp. 299–326.
[10] K. Pitilakis, S. Argyroudis, K. Kakderi, P. Gehl, N. Desramaut, B. Khazai, A. Yakut, A. M. Kaynia, J. Johansson, M. Fardis, F. Karantoni, P. Askouni, F. Lyrantzaki, A. Papailia, G. Tsionis, H. Crowley, M. Colombi, and R. Monteiro, “Guidelines for deriving seismic fragility functions of elements at risk: Buildings, lifelines, transportation networks and critical facilities (SYNER-G Reference Report 4),” 2013.
[11] A. Amorosi and D. Boldini, “Numerical modelling of the transverse dynamic behaviour of circular tunnels in clayey soils,” Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., vol. 29, pp. 1059–1072, 2009.
[12] Midas GTS NX, “Midas GTS NX User Manual: Chapter 6. Analysis,” Midas Family Package. pp. 401–442, 2012.
[13] Oasys Ltd, “Adsec: Version 8.2.” 2014.
[14] M. Shinozuka, M. Q. Feng, J. Lee, and T. Naganuma, “Statistical Analysis of Fragility Curves,” J. Eng. Mech., vol. 126, no. December, pp. 1224–1231, 2000.
[15] National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS), “Multi-hazard Loss Estimation Methodology Earthquake Model: HAZUS® MH MR4 Technical Manual,” Washington, D.C, 2004.
[16] G. D. Hatzigeorgiou and D. E. Beskos, “Soil–structure interaction effects on seismic inelastic analysis of 3-D tunnels,” Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 851–861, Sep. 2010.
[17] The British Tunnelling Society (BTS) and Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE), Tunnel Lining Design Guide. Thomas Telford Books, 2004, pp. 100–113.
[18] P. E. E. R. C. PEER, “PEER Ground Motion Database,” Shallow Crustal Earthquakes in Active Tectonic Regimes, NGA-West2, 2013. (Online). Available:
[19] BS EN 1998-1:2004 and T. E. S. E. 1998-1:2004 has status of a B. S. European Committee for Standardization, Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance BS EN 1998-1:2004, vol. 3. 2004.
[20] Y. M. a. Hashash, D. Park, and J. I.-C. Yao, “Ovaling deformations of circular tunnels under seismic loading, an update on seismic design and analysis of underground structures,” Tunn. Undergr. Sp. Technol., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 435–441, Sep. 2005.
[21] N. Iranisarand, “Effect of Vertically Propagating Shear Waves on Seismic Behavior of Circular Tunnels,” 15th World Conf. Earthq. Eng., vol. 2014, 2012.
[22] Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center, “PEER Ground Motion Database,” 2014. (Online). Available:
[23] American Lifelines Alliance (ALA), “Seismic Fragility Formulations for Water Systems: Part 1 - Guideline, ASCE-FEMA, Reston,” 2001.
[24] N. G. Owen and R. E. Scholl, “Earthquake Engineering of Large Underground Structures,” 1981.
[25] S. Sharma and W. R. Judd, “Underground opening damage from earthquakes,” Eng. Geol., vol. 30, pp. 263–276, 1991.
[26] J. M. Mayoral, S. Argyroudis, and E. Castañon, “Vulnerability of floating tunnel shafts for increasing earthquake loading,” Soil Dyn. Earthq. Eng., vol. 80, pp. 1–10, 2016.