Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31515
Fatty Acid Extracts of Sea Pen (Virgularia gustaviana) and Their Potential Applications as Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Authors: Sharareh Sharifi


In this study, the crude extracts of Virgularia gustavina were examined as antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory agent. To assess inflammation, Xylene was applied to the ear of mice. The mice of the experimental group were fed with doses of 10 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, and 40 mg/kg of lipid extract of chloroform and hexane as a separate group and then statistical analysis was performed on the results. Chloroform and hexane extracts of sea pen have strong anti-inflammatory effects even at low doses which is probably due to 54% arachidonic acid. Antibacterial and antifungal effects of hexane and chloroform extracts were measured with MIC and MBC methods and it is shown that chloroform extract has best activity against Staphylococcus aureus on 125 µg/ml doze in MIC method.

Keywords: Sea pen (Virgularia gustaviana), lipid extract, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial activity.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 808


[1] Moritz MI, Marostica LL, Bianco EM, Almeida MT, Carraro JL, Cabrera GM, et al. Polyoxygenated Steroids from the Octocoral Leptogorgia punicea and in vitro Evaluation of Their Cytotoxic Activity. Marine drugs. 2014;12(12):5864-80.
[2] Baillon S, Hamel JF, Mercier A. Diversity, distribution and nature of faunal associations with deep-sea pennatulacean corals in the northwest Atlantic. PloS one. 2014;9(11):e111519.
[3] Buckeridge JS, Campbell HJ, Maurizot P. Unravelling the nature of Waiparaconus, a pennatulacean (Cnidaria: Octocorallia) from the Late Mesozoic-Early Cainozoic of the Southern Hemisphere. Integrative zoology. 2014;9(2):111-20.
[4] Dolan E, Tyler PA, Yesson C, Rogers AD. Phylogeny and systematics of deep-sea sea pens (Anthozoa: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea). Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 2013;69(3):610-8.
[5] Koizumi K, Hiratsuka S, Saito H. Lipid and fatty acids of three edible myctophids, Diaphus watasei, Diaphus suborbitalis, and Benthosema pterotum: high levels of icosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Journal of oleo science. 2014;63(5):461-70.
[6] Lee NL, Su JH. Tetrahydrofuran cembranoids from the cultured soft coral Lobophytum crassum. Marine drugs. 2011;9(12):2526-36.
[7] Li G, Fu Y, Zheng J, Li D. Anti-inflammatory activity and mechanism of a lipid extract from hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) on chronic arthritis in rats. Marine drugs. 2014;12(2):568-88.
[8] Sharifi S, Safaeian S. Anti-inflammatory effect of lipid extract of sea pen (Virgularia gustaviana) in mice. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2015;8(2):332-4.
[9] Gomaa MN, Soliman K, Ayesh A, Abd El-Wahed A, Hamza Z, Mansour HM, et al. Antibacterial effect of the red sea soft coral Sarcophyton trocheliophorum. Natural product research. 2015:1-6.
[10] Ostermann AI, Muller M, Willenberg I, Schebb NH. Determining the fatty acid composition in plasma and tissues as fatty acid methyl esters using gas chromatography - a comparison of different derivatization and extraction procedures. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids. 2014;91(6):235-41.
[11] Hussain J, Ruan Z, Nascimento IA, Liu Y, Liao W. Lipid profiling and corresponding biodiesel quality of Mortierella isabellina using different drying and extraction methods. Bioresource technology. 2014;169:768-72.
[12] Bligh EG, Dyer WJ. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian journal of biochemistry and physiology. 1959;37(8):911-7.
[13] Iwasa M, Nakaya S, Maki Y, Marumoto S, Usami A, Miyazawa M. Identification of Aroma-active Compounds in Essential Oil from Uncaria Hook by Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry. Journal of oleo science. 2015;64(8):825-33.
[14] Azadmard-Damirchi S, Dutta PC. A single step solid-phase extraction method for complete separation of sterol oxidation products in food lipids. Journal of chromatography A. 2009;1216(1):36-42.
[15] Szymanski WG, Kierszniowska S, Schulze WX. Metabolic labeling and membrane fractionation for comparative proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cell cultures. Journal of visualized experiments: JoVE. 2013(79):e50535.
[16] Onumah N. A novel anti-inflammatory in treatment of acne vulgaris: the pseudopterosins. Journal of drugs in dermatology: JDD. 2013;12(10):1177-9.
[17] de Souza ET, de Lira DP, de Queiroz AC, da Silva DJ, de Aquino AB, Mella EA, et al. The antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of caulerpin, a bisindole alkaloid isolated from seaweeds of the genus Caulerpa. Marine drugs. 2009;7(4):689-704.
[18] Cui Y, Ao M, Li W, Hu J, Yu L. Anti-inflammatory activity of licochalcone A isolated from Glycyrrhiza inflata. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C, Journal of biosciences. 2008;63(5-6):361-5.
[19] Zhao M, Yin J, Jiang W, Ma M, Lei X, Xiang Z, et al. Cytotoxic and antibacterial cembranoids from a South China Sea soft coral, Lobophytum sp. Marine drugs. 2013;11(4):1162-72.
[20] Njeru SN, Obonyo MA, Nyambati SO, Ngari SM. Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity properties of the crude extracts and fractions of Premna resinosa (Hochst.) Schauer (Compositae): Kenyan traditional medicinal plant. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2015;15:295.
[21] Marathe NP, Rasane MH, Kumar H, Patwardhan AA, Shouche YS, Diwanay SS. In vitro antibacterial activity of Tabernaemontana alternifolia (Roxb) stem bark aqueous extracts against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials. 2013;12:26.
[22] Ruttoh EK, Tarus PK, Bii CC, Machocho AK, Karimie LK, Okemo PO. Antibacterial activity of Tabernaemontana stapfiana britten (Apocynaceae) extracts. African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines: AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines. 2009;6(2):186-94.
[23] Kaur GJ, Arora DS. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2009;9:30.
[24] Al-Hindawi MK, Al-Deen IH, Nabi MH, Ismail MA. Anti-inflammatory activity of some Iraqi plants using intact rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 1989;26(2):163-8.
[25] Chen YF, Tsai HY, Wu TS. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities from roots of Angelica pubescens. Planta medica. 1995;61(1):2-8.
[26] Mayer AM, Hamann MT. Marine pharmacology in 2001--2002: marine compounds with anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action. Comparative biochemistry and physiology Toxicology & pharmacology: CBP. 2005;140(3-4):265-86.
[27] Ujihara T, Nagano M, Wada H, Mitsuhashi S. Identification of a novel type of polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase involved in arachidonic acid biosynthesis. FEBS letters. 2014;588(21):4032-6.
[28] Pang KL, Lin HJ, Lin HY, Huang YF, Chen YM. Production of Arachidonic and Eicosapentaenoic Acids by the Marine Oomycete Halophytophthora. Marine biotechnology. 2014.
[29] Wei MY, Li D, Shao CL, Deng DS, Wang CY. (+/-)-Pestalachloride D, an antibacterial racemate of chlorinated benzophenone derivative from a soft coral-derived fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. Marine drugs. 2013;11(4):1050-60.