Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30127
Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air PM2.5 in an Urban Site of Győr, Hungary
Abstract:In Hungary, the measurement of ambient PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations is great importance for a number of reasons related to human health, the environment and compliance with European Union legislation. However, the monitoring of PAHs associated with PM2.5 aerosol fraction is still incomplete. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of PAHs in PM2.5 urban aerosol fraction. PM2.5 and associated PAHs were monitored in November 2014 in an urban site of Győr (Northwest Hungary). The aerosol samples were collected every day for 24-hours over two weeks with a high volume air sampler provided with a PM2.5 cut-off inlet. The levels of 19 PAH compounds associated with PM2.5 aerosol fraction were quantified by a gas chromatographic method. Polluted air quality for PM2.5 (>25 g/m3) was indicated in 50% of the collected samples. The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 2.1 to 37.3 ng/m3 with the mean value of 12.4 ng/m3. Indeno(123-cd)pyrene (IND) and sum of three benzofluoranthene isomers were the most dominant PAH species followed by benzo(ghi)perylene and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Using BaP-equivalent approach on the concentration data of carcinogenic PAH species, BaP, and IND contributed the highest carcinogenic exposure equivalent (1.50 and 0.24 ng/m3 on average). A selected number of concentration ratios of specific PAH compounds were calculated to evaluate the possible sources of PAH contamination. The ratios reflected that the major source of PAH compounds in the PM2.5 aerosol fraction of Győr during the study period was fossil fuel combustion from automobiles.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1126585Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2022
 WHO, WHO air quality guidelines – global update 2005. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2005.
 WHO, Health effects of particulate matter. Policy implications for countries in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia. World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, 2013.
 EEA, Air quality in Europe – 2013 report. European Environment Agency, Luxembourg, 2013.
 ATSDR, Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Atlanta, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1995.
 K. Srogi, “Monitoring of environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review,” Environ. Chem. Lett., vol. 5, pp. 169–195, 2007.
 K. Ravindra, R. Sokhi, R. Van Grieken, “Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: source attribution, emission factors and regulation,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 42, no. 13, pp. 2895–2921, 2008.
 Zs. Csanádi, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, J. Erdős, “Temporal variation of PM10-bound benzo(a)pyrene concentration in an urban and a rural site of Northwestern Hungary,” Int. J. Environ. Chem. Ecol. Geol. Geophys. Eng., vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 872–876, 2015.
 C. E. Bostrom, P. Gerde, A. Hanberg, B. Jernstrom, C. Johansson, T. Kyrklund, A. Rannug, M. Tornqvist, K. Victorin, R. Westerholm, “Cancer risk assessment, indicators, and guidelines for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air,” Environ. Health Perspect., vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 451–488, 2002.
 B. G. Armstrong, E. Hutchinson, J. Unwin, T. Fletcher, “Lung cancer risk after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review and meta-analysis,” Environ. Health Perspect., vol. 112, no. 9, pp. 970–978, 2004.
 T. Nielsen, H. A. Jorgensen, J. C. Larsen, M. Poulsen, “City air pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other mutagens: occurrence, sources and health effects,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 189–190, pp. 41–49, 1996.
 A. Szabó Nagy, J. Szabó, Zs. Csanádi, J. Erdős, “Seasonal variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with PM10 in Győr, Hungary,” Int. J. Environ. Chem. Ecol. Geol. Geophys. Eng., vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 824–828, 2015.
 J. Szabó, A. Szabó Nagy, J. Erdős, “Ambient concentrations of PM10, PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in an urban site of Győr, Hungary,” Air Qual. Atmos. Health, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 229–241, 2015.
 MSZ EN 15549:2008, Air quality. Standard method for measurement of the concentration of benzo(a)pyrene in ambient air. Hungarian Standard Association, Budapest, 2008.
 G. Muránszky, M. Óvári, I. Virág, P. Csiba, R. Dobai, G. Záray, “Chemical characterization of PM10 fractions of urban aerosol,” Microchem. J., vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 2011.
 W. Rogula-Kozlowska, B. Kozielska, K. Klejnowski, S. Szopa, “Hazardous compounds in urban PM in the central part of the upper Silesia (Poland) in winter,” Arch. Environ. Prot., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 53–65, 2013.
 A. Arruti, I. Fernández-Olmo, Á. Irabien, “Evaluation of the urban/rural particle-bound PAH and PCB levels in the Northern Spain (Cantabria region),” Environ. Monit. Assess., vol. 184, no. 11, 6513–6526, 2012
 A. Gutierrez-Daban, A. J. Fernandez-Espinosa, M. Ternero-Rodriguez, F. Fernandez-Alvarez, “Particle-size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air in southern Spain,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem., vol. 381, no. 3, pp. 721–736, 2005.
 A. Dvorska, G. Lammel, J. Klanova, I. Holoubek, “Kosetice, Czech Republic – ten years of air pollution monitoring and four years of evaluating the origin of persistent organic pollutants,” Environ. Pollut., vol. 156, no. 2, pp. 403–408, 2008.
 M. Staniszewska, B. Graca, M. Beldowska, D. Saniewska, “Factors controlling benzo(a)pyrene concentration in aerosols in the urbanized coastal zone. A case study: Gdynia, Poland (Southern Baltic Sea),” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res., vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 4154–4163, 2016.
 M. B. Yunker, R. W. Macdonald, R. Vingarzan, H. R. Mitchell, D. Goyette, S. Sylvestre, “PAHs in the Fraser River basin: a critical appraisal of PAH ratios as indicators of PAH source and composition,” Org. Geochem., vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 489–515, 2002.
 S. Kaur, K. Senthilkumar, V. K. Verma, B. Kumar, S. Kumar, “Preliminary analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air particles (PM10) in Amritsar, India: Sources, apportionment, and possible risk implications to humans,” Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 382–395, 2013.