Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32127
A Note on Metallurgy at Khanak: An Indus Site in Tosham Mining Area, Haryana

Authors: Ravindra N. Singh, Dheerendra P. Singh


Recent discoveries of Bronze Age artefacts, tin slag, furnaces and crucibles, together with new geological evidence on tin deposits in Tosham area of Bhiwani district in Haryana (India) provide the opportunity to survey the evidence for possible sources of tin and the use of bronze in the Harappan sites of north western India. Earlier, Afghanistan emerged as the most promising eastern source of tin utilized by Indus Civilization copper-smiths. Our excavations conducted at Khanak near Tosham mining area during 2014 and 2016 revealed ample evidence of metallurgical activities as attested by the occurrence of slag, ores and evidences of ashes and fragments of furnaces in addition to the bronze objects. We have conducted petrological, XRD, EDAX, TEM, SEM and metallography on the slag, ores, crucible fragments and bronze objects samples recovered from Khanak excavations. This has given positive indication of mining and metallurgy of poly-mettalic Tin at the site; however, it can only be ascertained after the detailed scientific examination of the materials which is underway. In view of the importance of site, we intend to excavate the site horizontally in future so as to obtain more samples for scientific studies.

Keywords: Archaeometallurgy, problem of tin, metallography, Indus civilization.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1783


[1] Kochhar, N., 1972, The problem of volcanic-plutonic association in the light of studies on the Tusham ring complex, north peninsular India. Bull. Volc. Tome xxxvi-3: 497-550;
[2] Kochhar, N., 1983, Tusham ring complex Bhiwani, India, Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy., 49: 459-469.
[3] Kochhar, N., Kochhar, R. And Chakrabarti, D.K., 1999, A New Source of Primary Tin Ore in the Indus Civilisation, South Asian Studies, 15: 115-118.
[4] Chakrabarti, D.K., 2014, Distribution and Features of the Harappan Settlements, in History of India-Protohistoric Foundation (Eds. D.K. Chakrabarti & M. Lal,) Vivekanand International Foundation, New Delhi,
[5] Law, Randal, 2006, Moving mountains: The Trade and Transport of Rocks and minerals with in the greater Indus Valley Region in Space and Spatial Analysis in Archaeology, (Eds.) E.C. Robertson, R.D. Seibert, D.C. Fernandez and M.V. Zender, University of Calgary Press, Alberta, Canada.
[6] Law, R.W. 2008, Inter-regional Interaction and Urbanism in the Ancient Indus Valley: A Geologic Provenance Study of Harappa’s Rock and Mineral Assemblage, pp 209-210, ProQuest: University of Wisconsin.
[7] Parmar, Narender, 2013, Protohistoric Investigations in the Bhiwani District of Haryana, unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Deccan College, Pune.
[8] Singh R.N., A.K. Pandey, D.P. Singh, Amit Ranjan, Sudarshan Chakradhari, N. Parmar & V. Pawar, 2014, Small Scale Excavations at Khanak, Bhiwani: A Site in Tosham Mining Area, Haryana, Paper Presented at Joint Annual Conference of Indian Archaeological Society, Indian Society of Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies & Indian History and Culture Society, October, 2014, Pune.
[9] Singh, D.P., 2015, A Scientific Studies of Harappan Ceramics from Haryana & Western Uttar Pradesh, Un-Published Ph.D. Thesis, Banaras Hindu University.