Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30127
The Effect of Iconic and Beat Gestures on Memory Recall in Greek’s First and Second Language
Authors: Eleni Ioanna Levantinou
Abstract:Gestures play a major role in comprehension and memory recall due to the fact that aid the efficient channel of the meaning and support listeners’ comprehension and memory. In the present study, the assistance of two kinds of gestures (iconic and beat gestures) is tested in regards to memory and recall. The hypothesis investigated here is whether or not iconic and beat gestures provide assistance in memory and recall in Greek and in Greek speakers’ second language. Two groups of participants were formed, one comprising Greeks that reside in Athens and one with Greeks that reside in Copenhagen. Three kinds of stimuli were used: A video with words accompanied with iconic gestures, a video with words accompanied with beat gestures and a video with words alone. The languages used are Greek and English. The words in the English videos were spoken by a native English speaker and by a Greek speaker talking English. The reason for this is that when it comes to beat gestures that serve a meta-cognitive function and are generated according to the intonation of a language, prosody plays a major role. Thus, participants that have different influences in prosody may generate different results from rhythmic gestures. Memory recall was assessed by asking the participants to try to remember as many words as they could after viewing each video. Results show that iconic gestures provide significant assistance in memory and recall in Greek and in English whether they are produced by a native or a second language speaker. In the case of beat gestures though, the findings indicate that beat gestures may not play such a significant role in Greek language. As far as intonation is concerned, a significant difference was not found in the case of beat gestures produced by a native English speaker and by a Greek speaker talking English.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1126227Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 835
 Martha W Alibali, Dana C Heath, and Heather J Myers. Effects of visibility between speaker and listener on gesture production: Some gestures are meant to be seen. Journal of Memory and Language, 44(2):169–188, 2001.
 Martha W Alibali, Sotaro Kita, and Amanda J Young. Gesture and the process of speech production: We think, therefore we gesture. Language and cognitive processes, 15(6):593–613, 2000.
 Amalia Arvaniti and Mary Baltazani. Intonational analysis and prosodic annotation of greek spoken corpora. Prosodic typology: The phonology of intonation and phrasing, pages 84–117, 2005.
 Mary Baltazani. Pragmatics, intonation, and word order in greek. Interfaces prosodiques, pages 14–19, 2003.
 Mary Baltazani. Intonation and pragmatic interpretation of negation in greek. Journal of Pragmatics, 38(10):1658–1676, 2006.
 Antonis Botinis. The greek vowels. Working Papers in Linguistics-Phonetics, 21:29–36, 1981.
 Antonis Botinis. Stress and prosodic structure in greek. A phonological, acoustic, physiological and perceptual study, 1989.
 Anthi Chaida. Tonal structures of complex sentences in greek. In Proc. of the 8th Internation Conference on Greek Linguistics. Ioannina, Greece, 2007.
 James M Clark and Allan Paivio. Dual coding theory and education. Educational psychology review, 3(3):149–210, 1991.
 Ronald L Cohen and Graham Bean. Memory in educable mentally retarded adults: Deficit in subject or experimenter? Intelligence, 7(3):287–298, 1983.
 Ronald L Cohen and Nicola Otterbein. The mnemonic effect of speech gestures: Pantomimic and non-pantomimic gestures compared. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 4(2):113–139, 1992.
 Susan Wagner Cook and Michael K Tanenhaus. Embodied communication: Speakers gestures affect listeners actions. Cognition, 113(1):98–104, 2009.
 Susan Wagner Cook, Terina KuangYi Yip, and Susan Goldin-Meadow. Gesturing makes memories that last. Journal of memory and language, 63(4):465–475, 2010.
 Johannes Engelkamp and Ronald L Cohen. Current issues in memory of action events. Psychological Research, 53(3):175–182, 1991.
 Pierre Feyereisen. Further investigation on the mnemonic effect of gestures: Their meaning matters. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 18(2):185–205, 2006.
 Susan Goldin-Meadow and David McNeill. The role of gesture and mimetic representation in making language the province of speech. na, 1999.
 Susan Goldin-Meadow, Howard Nusbaum, Spencer D Kelly, and Susan Wagner. Explaining math: Gesturing lightens the load. Psychological Science, 12(6):516–522, 2001.
 Marianne Gullberg. Gesture as a communication strategy in second language discourse: A study of learners of French and Swedish, volume 35. Lund University, 1998.
 Marianne Gullberg. Gestures, referents, and anaphoric linkage in learner varieties. Information structure and the dynamics of language acquisition, pages 311–328, 2003.
 Marianne Gullberg. Handling discourse: Gestures, reference tracking, and communication strategies in early l2. Language Learning, 56(1):155–196, 2006.
 Marianne Gullberg. Gestures and second language acquisition. Handbook of cognitive linguistics and second language acquisition, pages 276–305, 2008.
 Marianne Gullberg. Gestures and the development of semantic representations in first and second language acquisition. Acquisition et interaction en langue ´etrang`ere, 1(1):117–139, 2009.
 Marianne Gullberg, Leah Roberts, Christine Dimroth, Kim Veroude, and Peter Indefrey. Adult language learning after minimal exposure to an unknown natural language. Language Learning, 60(s2):5–24, 2010.
 Amy L Hubbard, Kristin McNealy, Scott-Van Zeeland, A Ashley, Daniel E Callan, Susan Y Bookheimer, and Mirella Dapretto. Altered integration of speech and gesture in children with autism spectrum disorders. Brain and behavior, 2(5):606–619, 2012.
 Naomi Jacobs and Alan Garnham. The role of conversational hand gestures in a narrative task. Journal of Memory and Language, 56(2):291–303, 2007.
 Spencer D Kelly, Dale J Barr, R Breckinridge Church, and Katheryn Lynch. Offering a hand to pragmatic understanding: The role of speech and gesture in comprehension and memory. Journal of memory and Language, 40(4):577–592, 1999.
 Spencer D Kelly, Tara McDevitt, and Megan Esch. Brief training with co-speech gesture lends a hand to word learning in a foreign language. Language and cognitive processes, 24(2):313–334, 2009.
 Adam Kendon. Do gestures communicate? a review. Research on language and social interaction, 27(3):175–200, 1994.
 Sotaro Kita. How representational gestures help speaking. Language and gesture, pages 162–185, 2000.
 Robert M Krauss, Yihsiu Chen, and Rebecca F Gotfexnum. 13 lexical gestures and lexical access: a process model. Language and gesture, 2:261, 2000.
 Eleni Levantinou and Costanza Navarretta. A case study of the mnemonic effect of beat and iconic gestures in l2. In Pre-proceedings of 3rd European Symposium on Multimodal Communication, Dublin, 2015.
 Eleni Ioanna Levantinou. The role of iconic and beat gesture on second language acquisition. a case study of mnemonic effect of the different types of gestures on l2. In Unpublished semester project, 2015.
 Manuela Macedonia, Kirsten Bergmann, and Friedrich Roithmayr. Imitation of a pedagogical agents gestures enhances memory for words in second language. Science Journal of Education, 2(5):162–169, 2014.
 Manuela Macedonia, Karsten M¨uller, and Angela D Friederici. The impact of iconic gestures on foreign language word learning and its neural substrate. Human brain mapping, 32(6):982–998, 2011.
 Steven G McCafferty. Space for cognition: Gesture and second language learning. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14(1):148–165, 2004.
 David McNeill. Hand and mind: What gestures reveal about thought. University of Chicago press, 1992.
 David McNeill. Imagery in motion event descriptions: Gesture as part of thinking-for-speaking in three languages. In Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, volume 23, pages 255–267, 1997.
 Roxana Moreno and Richard E Mayer. A learner-centered approach to multimedia explanations: Deriving instructional design principles from cognitive theory. Interactive multimedia electronic journal of computer-enhanced learning, 2(2):12–20, 2000.
 Laura M Morett. When hands speak louder than words: The role of gesture in the communication, encoding, and recall of words in a novel second language. The Modern Language Journal, 98(3):834–853, 2014.
 Ezequiel Morsella and Robert M Krauss. The role of gestures in spatial working memory and speech. The American journal of psychology, pages 411–424, 2004.
 Lars-G¨oran Nilsson and Fergus IM Craik. Additive and interactive effects in memory for subject-performed tasks. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 2(4):305–324, 1990.
 Lars Nyberg. Levels of processing: A view from functional brain imaging. Memory, 10(5-6):345–348, 2002.
 Asli O¨ zyu¨rek. Do speakers design their cospeech gestures for their addressees? the effects of addressee location on representational gestures. Journal of Memory and Language, 46(4):688–704, 2002.
 Wing Chee So, Colin Sim Chen-Hui, and Julie Low Wei-Shan. Mnemonic effect of iconic gesture and beat gesture in adults and children: Is meaning in gesture important for memory recall? Language and Cognitive Processes, 27(5):665–681, 2012.
 Marion Tellier. The effect of gestures on second language memorisation by young children. Gesture, 8(2):219–235, 2008.
 Susan M Wagner, Howard Nusbaum, and Susan Goldin-Meadow. Probing the mental representation of gesture: Is handwaving spatial? Journal of Memory and Language, 50(4):395–407, 2004.
 Ying Choon Wu and Seana Coulson. How iconic gestures enhance communication: An erp study. Brain and language, 101(3):234–245, 2007.