Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32220
The Effect of a Three-Month Training Program on the Back Kyphosis of Former Male Addicts

Authors: M. J. Pourvaghar, Sh. Khoshemehry


Adopting inappropriate body posture during addiction can cause muscular and skeletal deformities. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of a program of the selected corrective exercises on the kyphosis of addicted male patients. Materials and methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. This study has been carried out using the semi-experimental method. The subjects of the present study included 104 addicted men between 25 to 45 years of age. In 2014, these men were referred to one of the NA (Narcotic Anonymous) centres in Kashan in 2015. A total of 24 people suffering from drug withdrawal, who had abnormal kyphosis, were purposefully selected as a sample. The sample was randomly divided into two groups, experimental and control; each group consisted of 12 people. The experimental group participated in a training program for 12 weeks consisting of three 60 minute sessions per week. That includes strengthening, stretching and PNF exercises (deep stretching of the muscle). The control group did no exercise or corrective activity. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess normal distribution of data; and a paired t-test and covariance analysis test were used to assess the effectiveness of the exercises, with a significance level of P≤0.05 by using SPSS18. The results showed that three months of the selected corrective exercises had a significant effect (P≤ 0.005) on the correction of the kyphosis of the addicted male patients after three months of rehabilitation (drug withdrawal) in the experimental group, while there was no significant difference recorded in the control group (P≥0.05). The results show that exercise and corrective activities can be used as non-invasive and non-pharmacological methods to rehabilitate kyphosis abnormalities after drug withdrawal and treatment for addiction.

Keywords: Kyphosis, corrective exercises, addict, drug withdrawal.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1619


[1] A. Farhodian, SJ. Sadrossadat, F. Mohammadi, A. Manokyan, F. Jafari, M. Sadeghi, et al., (2008). Evaluated knowledge and attitudes of a group of Armenians in Tehran and drug addiction. Adv Cogn Sci 10: (2): 9-20.
[2] M. Hajirasooli, (2008). Use of exercise in the prevention and treatment of addiction. Addiction 3: 62-4.
[3] N. Rahnama, E. Bambaeichi, F. Taghian, AB. Nazarian, M. Abdollahi, (2010). Effect of 8 Weeks Regular Corrective Exercise on Spinal Columns Deformities in Girl Students. Journal of Isfahan Medical School 27(101): 677-687.
[4] R. Arshadi, R. Rajabi, Mh. Alizadeh, J. Vakili, (2009) Correlation between back extensor strength and spine flexibility with degree of kyphosis and lordosis. Olympic 17(2): 127-36.
[5] A. Azizi, R. Mahdavinejad, A. A. T Tizabi, T. Jafarnejad, & A. Rezaeinasab, (2012). The Effect of 8 Weeks Specific Aquatic Therapy on Kyphosis Angle and some Pulmonary Indices in Male University Students with Kyphosis. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences 19(5): 440-450.
[6] A. LetafatKar, Z. Abdolvahabi, (2011). General reform movement along with corrective exercises. Tehran, Iran: Avaye Zohur.
[7] E. Vafamand, M. Kargarfard, M. Marandi, (2012). Effects of an eight-week aerobic exercise program on dopamine and serotonin levels in addicted women in the central prison of Isfahan, Iran. J Isfahan Med Sch 30 (204): 1336-47.
[8] M. Mogharnasi, M, Koushan, F. Golestaneh, M. Seyedahmadi, F. Keavanlou (2007). The effect of aerobic training on the mental health of addict women. J Sabzevar Univ Med Sci 18(2): 91-7.
[9] A. Kazemi, R. Mahdavinejad, Gh. Ghasemi, M. Sadeghi, (2013). Effects of an 8-week exercise with Physioball on the correction of thoracic kyphosis, balance and quality of life in addicted men after quitting drugs. J Res Rehabil Sci 9(2): 328-37.
[10] JA. Cleland, JD. Childs, JM. Fritz, JM. Whitman, & SL. Eberhart (2007) Development of a clinical prediction rule for guiding treatment of a subgroup of patients with neck pain: use of thoracic spine manipulation, exercise and patient education. Physical therapy 87(1): 9-23.
[11] B. Sekendiz, M. Cug, F. Korkusuz, (2010). Effects of Swiss-ball core strength training on strength, endurance, flexibility, and balance in sedentary women. J Strength Cond Res 24(11): 3032-40.
[12] I. Bautmans, J. Van Arken, M. Van Mackelenberg, & T. Mets, (2010). Rehabilitation using manual mobilization for thoracic kyphosis in elderly postmenopausal patients with osteoporosis. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 42(2): 129-135.
[13] N. Shavandi, SH. Shahrjerdi, R. Heidarpor, R. Sheikh-Hoseini (2011). The effect of 7 weeks corrective exercise on thoracic kyphosis in hyper-kyphotic students. Journal of Shahrekord Uuniversity of Medical Sciences 13(4): 42-50.
[14] A. Sayari, A. Farahani, M. Ghanbarzadeh, (2006). Study and comparison effect of structural corrective exercise and aerobic corrective exercise programs on some pulmonary indices of kyphotic students in Ahwaz shahid Chamran University. Olympic 14(3): 61-9.
[15] M. Kargarfard, GA, Ghasemi, R. Rouzbehani, R. Mahdavi-Nejad, M. Ghias, Z. Mahdavi-Jafari, et al., (2010) Assessment of spinal curvature in Isfahan university students. J Isfahan Med School 27 (102): 762-6.
[16] L. Ghorbani, G. Ghasemi (2008). Effects of Eight Weeks Corrective Exercises on Lumbar Lordosis. Research in Rehabilitation Sciences 3(2): 59-71.
[17] F. Seidi, R. Rajabi, I. Ebrahimi, MH. Alizadeh, & H. Minoonejad (2013). The efficiency of corrective exercise interventions on thoracic hyper-kyphosis angle. Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation 27(1): 7-16.
[18] M. Mashhadi, Gh. Ghasemi, V. Zolaktaf, (2012). Effect of combined training exercises on the thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis of mentally retarded adolescents. Research in Rehabilitation Sciences 1(8): 199-201.
[19] F. Seidi, R. Rajabi, TI. Ebrahimi, AR. Tavani, SJ. Moussavi, (2009). The Iranian flexible ruler reliability and validity in lumbar lordosis measurement. World Journal of Sport Sciences 2(2): 95-9.
[20] R. Rajabi, H. Samadi, (2008). Laboratory manual of corrective exercise for post graduate students. Tehran, Iran: University of Tehran Press, pp: 35-42.
[21] J. González-Iglesias, C. Fernández-de-las-Peñas, JA. Cleland, F. Alburquerque-Sendín, L. Palomeque-del-Cerro, R. Méndez-Sánchez (2009). Inclusion of thoracic spine thrust manipulation into an electro-therapy/thermal program for the management of patients with acute mechanical neck pain: a randomized clinical trial. Manual therapy 14(3): 306-313.
[22] FA. Teixeira, GA. Carvalho, Reliability and validity of thoracic kyphosis measurements using the flexicurve method. Rev Bras Fisioter São Carlos 2007; 11(3): 173-177.
[23] M. Hosseini, HA. Alaei, A. Naderi, MR. Sharifi, R. Zahed, (2009). Treadmill exercise reduces self-administration of morphine in male rats. Pathophysiology 16(1): 3-7.
[24] MA. Smith, KL. Walker, KT. Cole, KC. Lang, (2011). The effects of aerobic exercise on cocaine self-administration in male and female rats. Psychopharmacology 218 (2): 357-69.
[25] G. Bielec, A. Peczak-Graczyk, & BDo. Waade, (2013). Swimming exercises induce anthropometric changes in adolescents? Issues in comprehensive pediatric nursing 36 (1-2): 37-47.
[26] J. Quek, YH. Pua, RA. Clark, AL. Bryant, (2012). Effects of thoracic kyphosis and forward head posture on cervical range of motion in older adults. Manual Therapy 18(1): 65-71.
[27] HM. Hanfy, MA. Awad, AH. Allah, (2012). Effect of Exercise on Postural Kyphosis in Female after Puberty. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy 6(3): 190.
[28] ND. Carter, KM. Khan, HA. McKay, MA. Petit, C. Waterman, A. Heinonen, et al., (2012) Community-based exercise program reduces risk factors for falls in 65- to 75-year-old women with osteoporosis: randomized controlled trial. CMAJ 167(9): 997-1004.
[29] G. Bielec, A. Peczak-Graczyk, & B. Waade, (2013). Do swimming exercises induce anthropometric changes in adolescents? Issues in comprehensive pediatric nursing 36 (1-2); 37-47.
[30] N. Shavandi, SH. Shahrjerdi, R. Heidarpor, R. Sheikh-Hoseini, (2011). The effect of 7 weeks corrective exercise on thoracic kyphosis in hyper-kyphotic students. Journal of Shahrekord Uuniversity of Medical Sciences 13(4): 42-50.
[31] DW. Vaughn, EW. Brown, (2007). The influence of an in-home based therapeutic exercise program on thoracic kyphosis angles. Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation 20(4): 155-65.
[32] WB. Katzman, DE. Sellmeyer, AL. Stewart, L. Wanek, KA. Hamel, (2007). Changes in flexed posture, musculoskeletal impairments, and physical performance after group exercise in community-dwelling older women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 88(2): 192-9.
[33] JW. Youdas, TR. Garrett, KS. Egan, TM. Therneau, (2000). Lumbar lordosis and pelvic inclination in adults with chronic lowback pain. Phys Ther 80: 261-275.
[34] ML. Walker, JM. Rothstein, SD. Finucane, RL. Lamb, (1987). Relationships between lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, and abdominal muscle performance. Phys Ther 7: 512-516.