Design of a Statistics Lecture for Multidisciplinary Postgraduate Students Using a Range of Tools and Techniques
Teaching statistics is a critical and challenging issue especially to students from multidisciplinary and diverse postgraduate backgrounds. Postgraduate research students require statistics not only for the design of experiments; but also for data analysis. Students often perceive statistics as a complex and technical subject; thus, they leave data analysis to the last moment. The lecture needs to be simple and inclusive at the same time to make it comprehendible and address the learning needs of each student. Therefore, the aim of this work was to design a simple and comprehendible statistics lecture to postgraduate research students regarding ‘Research plan, design and data collection’. The lecture adopted the constructive alignment learning theory which facilitated the learning environments for the students. The learning environment utilized a student-centered approach and used interactive learning environment with in-class discussion, handouts and electronic voting system handsets. For evaluation of the lecture, formative assessment was made with in-class discussions and poll questions which were introduced during and after the lecture. The whole approach showed to be effective in creating a learning environment to the students who were able to apply the concepts addressed to their individual research projects.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1126087Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF
 M. Yilmaz, The challenge of teachings statistics to non-specialists. Journal of Statistics Education, 4(1), pp. 1-9, 1997. Available from: http://www.amstat.org/publications/jse/v4n1/yilmaz.html. Accessed 20 December 2015.
 J. Freeman, S. Collier, D. Staniforth and K. Smith, Innovations in curriculum design: a multi-disciplinary approach to teaching statistics to undergraduate medical students. BMC Med Educ, 8(1). Pp. 28, 2008.
 K. Exley and R. Dennick, RGiving a lecture: From Presenting to Teaching. RoutledgeFalmer, London, UK. pp. 8, 2004. Available from: http://goo.gl/8og0A8. Accessed 24 December 2015.
 P. Hazelton, M. Malone, and A. Gardner, A multicultural, multidisciplinary short course to introduce recently graduated engineers to the global nature of professional practice, European Journal of Engineering Education, 34(3), pp. 281-290, 2009.
 D. Bligh, What’s the use of lectures? 6th ED. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, California, USA, 2000.
 R. Harden and J. Crosby, The good teacher is more than a lecturer-the twelve roles of the teacher. Medical Teacher 22(4), pp. 334-347, 2000.
 H. Fry, S. Ketteridge and S. Marshall, A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. 3rd edition, Enhancing academic practice: Routledge, Oxon, UK, 2008.
 D. McInerney, Educational Psychology–Theory, Research, and Teaching: A 25 year retrospective. Educational Psychology, 25(6), pp. 585-599, 2005.
 R. Duit and D. Treagust, Learning in Science_From behaviourism to social constructivism. In Fraser BJ and Tobin KG (Eds.), International Handbook of Science and Education, Kluwer Academic Publisher, UK, 1998. Available from: http://content.schweitzer-online.de/static/content/catalog/newbooks/978/079/233/9780792335313/9780792335313_Excerpt_001.pdf. (Accessed 22 December 2015).
 M. McLay, L. Mycroft, P. Noel, K. Orr, R. Thompson, J. Tummons, J. Weatherby, Learning and learners. In J. Avis, R. Fisher, & R. Thompson (Eds.), Teaching in lifelong learning: A guide to theory and practice, pp. 79–102, 2010. Maidenhead, UK. Available from: http://goo.gl/fWE97E (Accessed 22 December 2015).
 G. Hein, Constructivist learning theory. Paper presented at the International Committee of Museum Educators Conference, Jerusalem, Israel, pp. 15-22, 1991.
 K. Krause, S. Bochner and S. Duchesne, Educational psychology for learning and teaching. 3rd ED.South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson, 2003.
 Biggs, J. ,2003. Aligning teaching for constructing learning. Available from: http://www.bangor.ac.uk/adu/the_scheme/documents/Biggs.pdf. (Accessed 20 December 2015).
 M. Tennant, C. McMullen and D. Kaczynski, Teaching, learning and research in higher education: A critical approach. London, UK: Routledge, 2009.
 D. Nolan and T. Speed, Teaching Statistics Theory through Applications. The American Statistician, 53 (4), pp. 370-375, 1999.
 J. Butler, Use of teaching methods within the lecture format. Medical Teacher, 14(1), pp. 11-23, 1992.
 E. Williams, Students attitudes towards approaches to learning and assessment, Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 17(1), pp. 45-58, 1992.
 B. Frey and D. Birnbaum, Learners' Perceptions on the Value of PowerPoint in Lectures. ED467192, 2002. Available at: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED467192.pdf. (Accessed 22 December 2015).
 A. McClaran, Accreditation and Learning Outcomes in the UK at International Leadership Colloquium, 2010. Available from: http://www.qaa.ac.uk/Newsroom/Speeches/Transcripts/Pages/Accreditation-Learning-Outcomes-UK-International-Leadership-Colloquium.aspx. (Accessed 20 December 2015).
 P. Stern, A Holistic Approach to Teaching Evidence-Based Practice. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 59(2), pp. 157-162, 2005.
 J. Meyer and R. Land, Threshold concepts and troublesome knowledge (2): Epistemological considerations and a conceptual framework for teaching and learning. Higher Education, 49 (3), pp. 373-388, 2005.
 R. Johnson, Mixed Methods Research: A Research Paradigm Whose Time Has Come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), pp.14-26, 2004.
 V. D’Andrea and D. Gosling, Promoting Research in Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: two case studies of multi-disciplinary pedagogic research. ESRC-TLRP conference, 2000.
 J. Biggs, Teaching for quality learning at university. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press, 2011, available from: http://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=XhjRBrDAESkC&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=Teaching+for+quality+learning+at+university&ots=m3yhPUvjJV&sig=JDZT1SKsR11N3hivjvFX5-vccI4#v=onepage&q=Teaching%20for%20quality%20learning%20at%20university&f=false. (Accessed 20 December 2015).
 K. Trigwell and M. Prosser, Congruence between intention and strategy in science teachers’ approach to teaching. Higher Education, 32 (1), pp. 77–87, 1996.
 P. Honey and A. Mumford, The Learning Styles Helper’s Guide. Peter Honey Publication Limited, Berks, UK, 2000. Available from: http://peterhoney.com/documents/Learning-Styles-Helpers-Guide_QuickPeek.pdf. (Accessed 23 December 2015).
 D.A. Kolb, Experiential Learning, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1984.
 K. Smart, C. Witt and J. Scott, Toward Learner-Centered Teaching: An Inductive Approach. Business Communication Quarterly 75(4), pp. 392–403, 2012.
 S. Chatterjee and J. Hawkes, Statistics and Intuition for the Classroom. Teaching Statistics, 18 (2), pp. 34-38, 1995.
 S. Brookhart, Successful students’ formative and summative uses of assessment information. Assessment in Education, 8, pp.153–169, 2001.
 J. David, J. Nicol and M. Debra, Formative assessment and self regulated learning: a model and seven principles of good feedback practice, Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), pp.199-218, 2006.
 S. Aboulsoud, Formative versus summative assessment. Education for Health, 24(2), pp. 651, 2011.