Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30820
Co-Composting of Poultry Manure with Different Organic Amendments

Authors: M. E. Silva, I. Brás


To study the influence of different organic amendments on the quality of poultry manure compost, three pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: poultry manure/carcasse meal/ashes/grape pomace (Pile 1), poultry manure/ cellulosic sludge (Pile 2) and poultry manure (Pile 3). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored, over time, by evaluating standard physical and chemical parameters, such as, pH, electric conductivity, moisture, organic matter and ash content, total carbon and total nitrogen content, carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) and content in mineral elements. Piles 1 and 2 reached a thermophilic phase, however having different trends. Pile 1 reached this phase earlier than Pile 2. For both, the pH showed a slight alkaline character and the electric conductivity was lower than 2 mS/cm. Also, the initial C/N value was 22 and reached values lower than 15 at the end of composting process. The total N content of the Pile 1 increased slightly during composting, in contrast with the others piles. At the end of composting process, the phosphorus content ranged between 54 and 236 mg/kg dry matter, for Pile 2 and 3, respectively. Generally, the Piles 1 and 3 exhibited similar heavy metals content. This study showed that organic amendments can be used as carbon source, given that the final composts presented parameters within the range of those recommended in the 2nd Draft of EU regulation proposal (DG Env.A.2 2001) for compost quality.

Keywords: co-composting, poultry manure, organic amendments, compost quality

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 900


[1] G. Vallini, “Il Compostaggio,” in: La protezione dell’ambiente in Italia, I. Bertini., R. Cipollini and P. Tundo, Eds., Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche. Società Chimica Italiana e Consorzio Interuniversitario Chimica per l’Ambiente, Bologna, 1995, pp. 83–134.
[2] EN 13040, Soil Improvers and Growing Media – Sample preparation for chemical and physical tests, determination of dry matter content, moisture content and laboratory compacted bulk density. European Committee for Standardization, Technical Committee CEN/TC 223, 1999.
[3] EN 13039, Soil Improvers and Growing Media – Determination of organic matter content and ash. European Committee for Standardization. Technical Committee CEN/TC 223, 1999.
[4] F. Zucconi and M. De Bertoldi, “Compost specifications for the production and characterization of compost from municipal solid waste.” in: Compost: production, quality and use, M. De Bertoldi, M. P. Ferranti, P. L’Hermite, F. Zucconi, Eds., Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Ltd, Essex, 1987, pp. 30-50.
[5] EN 13654-1, Soil Improvers and Growing Media – Determination of Nitrogen – Part 1: Modified Kjeldahl Method. European Committee for Standardization, Technical Committee CEN/TC 223, 2001.
[6] APHA (American Public Health Association). Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. American Public Health Association, 21st ed, Washington D.C., 2005.
[7] EN 13650, Soil Improvers and Growing Media – Extraction of aqua regia soluble elements. European Committee for Standardization, Technical Committee CEN/TC 223, 2001.
[8] S. M. Tiquia, “Evolution of extracellular enzyme activities during manure composting,” Journal of Applied Microbiology 92, 764-775, 2002.
[9] J. C. Tang, Y. Inoue, T. Yasuta, S. Yoshida, A. Katayama, “Chemical and microbial properties of various compost products,” Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 49, 273–280, 2003.
[10] F. Nicholson, B. Chambers, B. Allowayd, A. Hird, S. Smith, C. Carlton-Smith,” An inventory of heavy metals inputs to agricultural soils in England and Wales,” in: Proceedings of the 16th World Congress of Soil Science. Montpellier, France, 1998.
[11] C. Mondini, R. Chiumenti, F. Borso, L. Leita, M. De Nobili, “Changes during processing in the organic matter of composted and air-dried poultry manure,” Bioresource Technology 55, 243-249, 1996.
[12] S. M. Tiquia, J. H. C. Wan, N. F.Y. Tam, “Extracellular enzyme profiles during co-composting of poultry manure and yard trimmings,” Process Biochemistry 36, 813-820, 2001.
[13] S. M. Tiquia and N. F. Y. Tam, “Characterization and composting of poultry litter in forced-aeration piles,” Process Biochemistry 37, 869-880, 2002.
[14] E. Guerra-Rodríguez, M. Vázquez, M. Díaz-Raviña, “Co-composting of barley wastes and solid poultry manure,” Bioresource Technology 75, 223-225, 2000.
[15] M. H. Charest, C. J. Beauchamp, “Composting of de-inking paper sludge with poultry manure at three nitrogen levels using mechanical turning: behavior of physico-chemical parameters,” Bioresource Technology 81, 7-17, 2002.
[16] S. M. Tiquia and N. Tam, “Fafe of nitrogen during composting of chicken litter,” Environ. Pollut. 110, 535–541, 2000.
[17] M. Gao, B. Li, A. Yu, F. Liang, L. Yang, Y. Sun, “The effect of aeration rate on forced-aeration composting of chicken manure and sawdust,” Bioresource Technology 101, 1899–1903, 2010.
[18] T. Nolan, S. M. Troy, M. G. Healy, W. Kwapinski, J. J. Leahy, P. G. Lawlor, “Characterization of compost produced from separated pig manure and a variety of bulking agents at low initial C/N ratios,” Bioresource Technology 102, 7131–7138, 2011.
[19] M. T. Abdelhamid, T. Horiuchi, S. Oba, “Composting of rice straw with oilseed rape cake and poultry manure and its effects on faba bean (Vicia faba L.) growth and soil properties,” Bioresource Technology 13, 183-189, 2004.
[20] E. Guerra-Rodríguez, J. Alonso, M. J. Melgar, M. Vázquez, “Evaluation of heavy metal contents in co-composts of poultry manure with barley wastes or chestnut burr/leaf litter,” Chemosphere, 65(10), 1801-1805, 2006.
[21] DG Env.A.2, Working Document of Biological Treatment of Biowaste 2nd draft. Directorate-General Environment, Brussels, 12th February, ENV.A.2 - Sustainable Resources, 2001.
[22] K. Lasaridi, I. Protopapa, M. Kotsou, G. Pilidis, T. Manios, A. Kyriacou, “Quality assessment of composts in the Greek market: The need for standards and quality assurance,” J. of Environ. Manage. 80, 58-65, 2006.