Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31584
Characteristics of Football Spectators Using Second Screen

Authors: Florian Pfeffel, Christoph A. Kexel, Peter Kexel, Maria Ratz


The parallel usage of different media channels has increased recently owing to technological advances. Second Screen describes the use of a second device by television viewers to consume further content which is related to the program they are watching. This study analysed the characteristics of football spectators regarding their media consumption in relation to Second Screen usage while watching a football match on TV. The existing literature on Second Screen usage is still very limited, especially in the context of particular broadcasting settings such as sport or even more specific such as football matches. Therefore, the primary research objective was to reveal first insights into the user behaviour of football spectators regarding Second Screen services. The survey, which was conducted among German football supporters in 2015, revealed some characteristics such as the identification and involvement into the sports which are related to an increased use of Second Screen services. One important finding for football supporters was that at the time of a match they have a lower parallel media usage compared to other TV broadcastings. Nevertheless, if supporters used a second device while watching a match on TV, then they were using specific Second Screen services. This means they searched for more content related information. The findings on the habits and characteristics of people who are using Second Screen services are relevant for future developments in that area as well as for marketing decisions.

Keywords: Media consumption, second screen, sport marketing, user behaviour.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1434


[1] BVDW, Google and TNS, “Faszination Mobile. Verbreitung, Nutzungsmuster und Trends.”, Bundesverband Digitale Wirtschaft in Kooperation mit Google und TNS Infratest. 2014. Online:
[2] S. Wilson, “In the Living Room: Second Screens and TV Audiences” in Television & New Media, vol. 17, no. 2, pp.174-191, Jan. 2016.
[3] K. Busemann and F. Tippelt,” Second Screen: Parallelnutzung von Fernsehen und Internet – Ergebnisse der ARD/ZDF-Onlinestudie 2014“, In Media Perspektiven 7-8/2014, 2014, pp. 408-416. Online: 0708-2014_Busemann_Tippelt.pdf
[4] J. Klein, J. Freeman, D. Harding and A. Teffahi, “Assessing the impact of second screen”, Report by Technologia in association with DTG and i2 media research MC/168, 2014, pp. 1-179. Online:
[5] E. Tsekleves, L. Cruickshank, A. Hill, K. Kondo and R. Whitham, “Interacting with Digital Media at home via a Second Screen “, In: Proceedings of the Ninth IEEE International Symposium on Multimedia Workshops, 2007, pp. 201-207.
[6] L. Cruickshank, E. Tsekleves, R. Whitham, A. Hill and K. Kondo,” Making Interactive TV Easier to Use: Interface Design for a Second Screen Approach “, In The Design Journal: An International Journal for All Aspects of Design, Vol. 10, no. 3, 2007, pp. 41-53.
[7] C. Courtois and E. D’heer,” Second Screen Applications and Tablet Users: Constellation, Awareness, Experience, and Interest “In: EuroiTV’12 Proceedings of the 10th European conference on Interactive tv and video, 2012, pp. 153-156.
[8] F. Pfeffel, P. Kexel, I. Imschweiler and C.A. Kexel, “Wenn Zuschauen alleine nicht mehr reicht – über den parallelen Medienkonsum im Sport.”, in accadis denkpunkt, 2016 no 1, 2016, pp. 6-13.