Development of Personal and Social Identity in Immigrant Deaf Adolescents
Identity development in adolescence is characterized by many risks and challenges, and becomes even more complex by the situation of migration and deafness. In particular, the condition of the second generation of migrant adolescents involves the comparison between the family context in which everybody speaks a language and deals with a specific culture (usually parents’ and relatives’ original culture), the social context (school, peer groups, sports groups), where a foreign language is spoken and a new culture is faced, and finally in the context of the “deaf” world. It is a dialectic involving unsolved differences that have to be treated in a discontinuous process, which will give complex outcomes and chances depending on the process of elaboration of the themes of growth and development, culture and deafness. This paper aims to underline the problems and opportunities for each issue which immigrant deaf adolescents must deal with. In particular, it will highlight the importance of a multifactorial approach for the analysis of personal resources (both intra-psychic and relational); the level of integration of the family of origin in the migration context; the elaboration of the migration event, and finally, the tractability of the condition of deafness. Some psycho-educational support objectives will be also highlighted for the identity development of deaf immigrant adolescents, with particular emphasis on the construction of the adolescents’ useful abilities to decode complex emotions, to develop self-esteem and to get critical thoughts about the inevitable attempts to build their identity. Remarkably, and of importance, the construction of flexible settings which support adolescents in a supple, “decentralized” way in order to avoid the regressive defenses that do not allow for the development of an authentic self.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1125183Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1025
 Ahmad W. I. U., Darr, A., Jones L., and Nisar, G., (1998), Deafness and ethnicity, Services, Policy and Politics, Bristol: Policy Press.
 Lawson S., Sachdev I., Identity, Language Use, and Attitudes: Some Sylheti-Bangladeshi Data from London, UK Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 2004, 23: 49-69.
 Jean S. Phinney J. S., Romero I., Nava M., Huang D., The Role of Language, Parents, and Peers in EthnicIdentity Among Adolescents in Immigrant Families, Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 2001, 30, No. 2,
 Skelton, T, & Valentine, G. (2003). "It feels like being deaf is normal": An exploration into the complexities of defining D/deafness and young D/deaf people's identities. Canadian Geographer, 47(4), 451-466.
 Valentine, G., & Skelton, T. (2007). Re-defining 'norms': D/deaf young people's transitions to independence. The Sociological Review, 55(1), 104-123.
 Cole, S. H., &Edelmann, R. J. (1991). Identity patterns and self- and teacher-perceptions of problems for deaf adolescents: A research note. Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 32(7), 1159-1165.
 Hardy, J. (2010). The development of a sense of identity in deaf adolescents in mainstream schools. Educational and Child Psychology, 27(2), 58-67.
 Atkin, K., Ahmad, W. I. U., & Jones, L. (2002). Young south Asian deaf people and their families: Negotiating relationships and identities. Sociology of Health and Illness, 24(1), 21-45.
 Murphy, J., & Dodd, B. (2010). A diagnostic challenge: Language difficulties and hearing impairment in a secondary-school student from a non-english-speaking background. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 26(3), 207-220.
 Modood T, Beishon S., and Virdee S., (1994) Changing ethnic identities, London: Policy Studies Institute.
 Hindley, P. A., Hill, P. D., McGuigan, S., & Kitson, N. (1994). Psychiatric disorder in deaf and hearing impaired children and young people: A prevalence study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 35(5), 917.
 Dammeyer, J. (2009). Congenitally deafblind children and cochlear implants: Effects on communication. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 14(2), 278-88.
 van Gent, T., Goedhart, A. W., Hindley, P. A., & Treffers, P. D. A. (2007). Prevalence and correlates of psychopathology in a sample of deaf adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48(9), 950-958.
 Rachford, D., & Furth, H. G. (1986). Understanding friendship and social rules in deaf andhearing adolescents. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 7, 391- 402.
 Marschark M., Everhart V.S., (1999). Problem solving by deaf and hearing children: twenty questions, Deafness and education international, 1, 63-79.
 Marschark M., Convertino C., McEvoy C., Masteller A., (2004), organization and use of mental lexicon by deaf and hearing individuals, American annals of the deaf, 149(1), 51-61.
 Wang J. (2000). Study of natural sign language and conventional sign language. Chinese journal of special education, 39, 33-39.
 Huang B. (2002). On deaf individuals special point, China disabled, 9, 54-55.
 Cole P. M., Michel M. K., Teti L. O. The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation: A clinical perspective. In: Fox NA, editor. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Serial No. 240 ed. Vol. 59. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press; 1994. pp. 73–100.
 Vostanis P., Hayes M., Du Feu M., J. Warren J., 1997, Detection of behavioural and emotional problems in deaf children and adolescents: comparison of two rating scales, Child: Care, Health and Development, 23, 3, 233–246.
 Rieffe, C., Terwogt, M. M., &Smit, C. (2003). Deaf children on the causes of emotions. Educational Psychology, 23(2), 159-168.
 Rieffe, C. (2012). Awareness and regulation of emotions in deaf children. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30(4), 477-492.
 Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 1-44.
 Harter, S. (2006). Self-processes and developmental psychopathology. Developmental psychopathology, vol 1: Theory and method (2nd ed.). (pp. 370-418) John Wiley & Sons Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
 Wright, M., Banerjee, R., Hoek, W., Rieffe, C., &Novin, S. (2010). Depression and social anxiety in children: Differential links with coping strategies. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38(3), 405-419.
 Mavroveli, S., Petrides, K. V., Rieffe, C., & Bakker, F. (2008). Trait emotional intelligence, psychological well-being, and peer-rated social competence in adolescence, Peter Lang Publishing, New York, NY. 2009.
 Rieffe, C., Oosterveld, P., Miers, A. C., Terwogt, M. M., & Ly, V. (2008). Emotion awareness and internalising symptoms in children and adolescents: The emotion awareness questionnaire revised. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(8), 756-761.
 Theunissen, S. C. P. M.; Soede, W.; Briaire, J. J.; Frijns, J.H.M.; et al. Depression in hearing-impaired children. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 75. 10 (2011): 1313-1317. Elsevier Ireland Ltd
 Orth U, Robins RW, Roberts BW. Low self-esteem prospectively predicts depression in adolescence and young adulthood. Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, 2008,95(3):695-708.
 Trzesniewski KH1, Donnellan MB, Moffitt TE, Robins RW, Poulton R, Caspi A., Low self-esteem during adolescence predicts poor health, criminal behavior, and limited economic prospects during adulthood. Dev Psychol. 2006;42(2):381-90.
 Watkins ER., Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought. Psychological Bullettin, 2008, 134(2):163-206.
 David CF, Kistner JA., Do positive self-perceptions have a "dark side"? Examination of the link between perceptual bias and aggression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2000. 28(4):327-37.
 van Gent, T., Goedhart, A. W., Knoors, H. E., Westenberg, M. P., &Treffers, P. D. (2012). Self-concept and ego development in deaf adolescents: A comparative study. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 17(3), 333-351.
 Wallace C., Kovatcheva, S. (1998) Youth in Society: The Construction and Deconstruction of Youth in East and West Europe, Macmillan, Basingstoke.
 Ladd, P. 2003. Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
 Jambor E., Elliott M., Self-esteem and Coping Strategies among Deaf Student. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2005, 10(1): 63-81.
 Polat F, Factors Affecting Psychosocial Adjustment of Deaf Students. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 2003,8(3):325-339.
 Jackson C, Traub R. J, Turnbull A. P., Parents' Experiences with Childhood Deafness Implications for Family-Centered Services, Communication Disorders Quarterly, 2008, 29, 2, 82-98.
 Lane H., Constructions of Deafness, Disability & Society, 1995, 10, 2, 171-190.
 Cole, E., &Akamatsu, C. T. (2000). Meeting the psychoeducational needs of deaf immigrant and refugee children. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 16(1), 1.
 Cigoli V., Gennari M., Mediare tra culture e generazioni,. La funzione della coppia genitoriale immigrata, in La Migrazione come evento familiare; Studi interdisciplinari sulla famiglia XXIII, Vita e pensiero, Milano, 2008, pp.123-148.
 Gregory S., Sheldon L., Bishop J., 1995, Deaf Young People and Their Families: Developing Understanding, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 McDowell L. (2002) Transition to work: masculine identities, youth inequality and labour market change, Gender, place and culture, 9,39-59.
 Katbamna S., Bhakya P and parker G., (2000), Perceptions of caregiving relationship in South Asian Communities. In Ahmad W. I. U. eds., Ethnicity, disabilities and Chronic Illness: Buckingham: Open University Press.