Integrated Design in Additive Manufacturing Based on Design for Manufacturing
Nowadays, manufactures are encountered with production of different version of products due to quality, cost and time constraints. On the other hand, Additive Manufacturing (AM) as a production method based on CAD model disrupts the design and manufacturing cycle with new parameters. To consider these issues, the researchers utilized Design For Manufacturing (DFM) approach for AM but until now there is no integrated approach for design and manufacturing of product through the AM. So, this paper aims to provide a general methodology for managing the different production issues, as well as, support the interoperability with AM process and different Product Life Cycle Management tools. The problem is that the models of System Engineering which is used for managing complex systems cannot support the product evolution and its impact on the product life cycle. Therefore, it seems necessary to provide a general methodology for managing the product’s diversities which is created by using AM. This methodology must consider manufacture and assembly during product design as early as possible in the design stage. The latest approach of DFM, as a methodology to analyze the system comprehensively, integrates manufacturing constraints in the numerical model in upstream. So, DFM for AM is used to import the characteristics of AM into the design and manufacturing process of a hybrid product to manage the criteria coming from AM. Also, the research presents an integrated design method in order to take into account the knowledge of layers manufacturing technologies. For this purpose, the interface model based on the skin and skeleton concepts is provided, the usage and manufacturing skins are used to show the functional surface of the product. Also, the material flow and link between the skins are demonstrated by usage and manufacturing skeletons. Therefore, this integrated approach is a helpful methodology for designer and manufacturer in different decisions like material and process selection as well as, evaluation of product manufacturability.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1125091Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1780
 D. L. Bourell, M. C. Leu, and D. W. Rosen, “Roadmap for additive manufacturing: identifying the future of freeform processing,” Univ. Tex. Austin Austin TX, 2009.
 W. Gao, Y. Zhang, D. Ramanujan, K. Ramani, Y. Chen, C. B. Williams, C. C. L. Wang, Y. C. Shin, S. Zhang, and P. D. Zavattieri, “The status, challenges, and future of additive manufacturing in engineering,” Comput.-Aided Des., vol. 69, pp. 65–89, Dec. 2015.
 A. Boschetto and L. Bottini, “Design for manufacturing of surfaces to improve accuracy in Fused Deposition Modeling,” Robot. Comput.-Integr. Manuf., vol. 37, pp. 103–114, Feb. 2016.
 A. Skander, Méthode et modèle DFM pour le choix des procédés et l’intégration des contraintes de fabrication vers l’émergence de la solution produit. Troyes, 2006.
 K. G. Swift and J. D. Booker, Process Selection: from design to manufacture. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003.
 X. Xie, “Design for manufacture and assembly,” Utah Dept Mech., 2003.
 G. Boothroyd, “Product design for manufacture and assembly,” Comput.-Aided Des., vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 505–520, Jul. 1994.
 J. Elgueder, F. Cochennec, L. Roucoules, and E. Rouhaud, “Product-process interface for effective product design and manufacturing in a DFM approach,” in 3rd International Congress Design and Modelling of Mechanical Systems, Tunisia, 2009, p. 8p.
 A. Skander, L. Roucoules, and J. S. K. Meyer, “Design and manufacturing interface modelling for manufacturing processes selection and knowledge synthesis in design,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 37, no. 5–6, pp. 443–454, Jun. 2007.
 D. W. Rosen, “Computer-Aided Design for Additive Manufacturing of Cellular Structures,” Comput.-Aided Des. Appl., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 585–594, Jan. 2007.
 S. Yim, “A retrieval method (DFM framework) for automated retrieval of design for additive manufacturing problems,” Citeseer, 2007.
 C. Chu, G. Graf, and D. W. Rosen, “Design for Additive Manufacturing of Cellular Structures,” Comput.-Aided Des. Appl., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 686–696, Jan. 2008.
 O. Kerbrat, P. Mognol, and J.-Y. Hascoët, “A new DFM approach to combine machining and additive manufacturing,” Comput. Ind., vol. 62, no. 7, pp. 684–692, Sep. 2011.
 Z. Doubrovski, J. C. Verlinden, and J. M. P. Geraedts, “Optimal Design for Additive Manufacturing: Opportunities and Challenges,” 2011, pp. 635–646.
 R. Ponche, J. Y. Hascoet, O. Kerbrat, and P. Mognol, “A new global approach to design for additive manufacturing,” Virtual Phys. Prototyp., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 93–105, Jun. 2012.
 R. Ponche, O. Kerbrat, P. Mognol, and J.-Y. Hascoet, “A novel methodology of design for Additive Manufacturing applied to Additive Laser Manufacturing process,” Robot. Comput.-Integr. Manuf., vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 389–398, Aug. 2014.
 B. Vayre, F. Vignat, and F. Villeneuve, “Designing for Additive Manufacturing,” Procedia CIRP, vol. 3, pp. 632–637, 2012.
 T. Kannan, “Design for additive manufacturing,” Jul-2013. (Online). Available: http://geometricglobal.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/ Geometric_Whitepaper-Additive-Manufacturing_July-2013.pdf.pdf. (Accessed: 27-Apr-2016).
 C. Klahn, B. Leutenecker, and M. Meboldt, “Design for Additive Manufacturing – Supporting the Substitution of Components in Series Products,” Procedia CIRP, vol. 21, pp. 138–143, 2014.
 K. Salonitis and S. A. Zarban, “Redesign Optimization for Manufacturing Using Additive Layer Techniques,” Procedia CIRP, vol. 36, pp. 193–198, 2015.
 Y. Tang, J.-Y. Hascoet, and Y. F. Zhao, “Integration of Topological and Functional Optimization in Design for Additive Manufacturing,” p. V001T06A006, Jul. 2014.
 S. Yang and Y. F. Zhao, “Additive manufacturing-enabled design theory and methodology: a critical review,” Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., vol. 80, no. 1–4, pp. 327–342, Sep. 2015.
 N. Boyard, M. Rivette, O. Christmann, S. Richir, “A design methodology for parts using additive manufacturing”, In: International Conference on Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping (VRAP), Portugal, 2013-10-01, High Value Manufacturing: Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Advanced Research in Virtual and Rapid Prototyping, Leiria, Portugal, 1-5 October, 2013
 M. K. Thompson, A. Stolfi, and M. Mischkot, “Process chain modeling and selection in an additive manufacturing context,” CIRP J. Manuf. Sci. Technol., vol. 12, pp. 25–34, Jan. 2016.
 K. V. Wong and A. Hernandez, “A review of additive manufacturing,” ISRN Mech. Eng., vol. 2012, 2012.
 Y. Zhang, A. Bernard, R. K. Gupta, and R. Harik, “Evaluating the Design for Additive Manufacturing: A Process Planning Perspective,” Procedia CIRP, vol. 21, pp. 144–150, 2014.
 J. Stampfl and M. Hatzenbichler, “Additive Manufacturing Technologies,” in CIRP Encyclopedia of Production Engineering, L. Laperrière, G. Reinhart, and T. I. A. for P. Engineering, Eds. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2014, pp. 20–27.
 C. Cozmei and F. Caloian, “Additive Manufacturing Flickering at the Beginning of Existence,” Procedia Econ. Finance, vol. 3, pp. 457–462, 2012.
 J. W. Halloran, V. Tomeckova, S. Gentry, S. Das, P. Cilino, D. Yuan, R. Guo, A. Rudraraju, P. Shao, T. Wu, T. R. Alabi, W. Baker, D. Legdzina, D. Wolski, W. R. Zimbeck, and D. Long, “Photopolymerization of powder suspensions for shaping ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 2613–2619, Nov. 2011.
 R. Noorani, Rapid prototyping: principles and applications. John Wiley & Sons Incorporated, 2006.
 J. Gardan, “Additive manufacturing technologies: state of the art and trends,” Int. J. Prod. Res., pp. 1–15, 2015.
 “NF X50-415, « Management des systèmes - Ingénierie intégrée -Concepts généraux et introduction aux méthodes d’application »,1994.
 G. Sohlenius, “Concurrent Engineering,” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol., vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 645–655, 1992.
 S. Tichkiewitch, “De la CFAO à la conception intégrée,” Rev. Int. CFAO Infogr., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 609–621, 1994.
 G. Pahl, W. Beitz, J. Feldhusen, and K.-H. Grote, “Conceptual Design,” in Engineering Design, Springer London, 2007, pp. 159–225.
 D. Effa, O. Nespoli, and S. Lambert, “Using the Case Method to Facilitate Learning of Design for Manufacturing and Cost,” Proc. Can. Eng. Educ. Assoc., 2015.
 R. Rajadhyaksha, “Turning designs into reality: The Manufacturability paradigm,” Geometric Ltd. May, 2012, (online) available: http://geometricglobal.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Turning-designs-into-reality-The-Manufacturability-paradigm1.pdf
 A. R. Venkatachalam, J. M. Mellichamp, and D. M. Miller, “A knowledge-based approach to design for manufacturability,” J. Intell. Manuf., vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 355–366, Oct. 1993.
 J. Corbett, M. Dooner, J. Meleka, and C. Pym, Design for manufacture: strategies, principles and techniques. Addison-Wesley Reading, MA, 1991.
 D. T. Koenig, Manufacturing Engineering: Principles for Optimization: Principles for Optimization. CRC Press, 1994.
 S. Arimoto, T. Ohashi, M. Ikeda, S. Miyakawa, and M. Kiuchi, “Development of Machining-Producibility Evaluation Method (MEM),” CIRP Ann. - Manuf. Technol., vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 119–122, 1993.
 J. Nicolás and A. Toval, “On the generation of requirements specifications from software engineering models: A systematic literature review,” Inf. Softw. Technol., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 1291–1307, Sep. 2009.
 M. Wilson, “Chapter 6 - Specification Preparation,” in Implementation of Robot Systems, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2015, pp. 133–146.
 L. Roucoules and A. Skander, “Manufacturing process selection and integration in product design. Analysis and synthesis approaches,” in Proceedings of the CIRP Design seminar, Grenoble, 2003.
 N. Gardan and N. Gardan, “Knowledge Management for Topological Optimization Integration in Additive Manufacturing, Knowledge Management for Topological Optimization Integration in Additive Manufacturing,” Int. J. Manuf. Eng. Int. J. Manuf. Eng., vol. 2014, 2014, p. e356256, Feb. 2014.
 N. Gardan and A. Schneider, “Topological optimization of internal patterns and support in additive manufacturing,” J. Manuf. Syst., vol. 37, pp. 417–425, Oct. 2015.