DNA of Hibiscus sabdariffa Damaged by Radiation from 900 MHz GSM Antenna
The technology of mobile telephony has positively enhanced human life and reports on the bio safety of the radiation from their antennae have been contradictory, leading to serious litigations and violent protests by residents in several parts of the world. The crave for more information, as requested by WHO in order to resolve this issue, formed the basis for this study on the effect of the radiation from 900 MHz GSM antenna on the DNA of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Seeds of H. sabdariffa were raised in pots placed in three replicates at 100, 200, 300 and 400 metres from the GSM antennae in three selected test locations and a control where there was no GSM signal. Temperature (˚C) and the relative humidity (%) of study sites were measured for the period of study (24 weeks). Fresh young leaves were harvested from each plant at two, eight and twenty-four weeks after sowing and the DNA extracts were subjected to RAPD-PCR analyses. There were no significant differences between the weather conditions (temperature and relative humidity) in all the study locations. However, significant differences were observed in the intensities of radiations between the control (less than 0.02 V/m) and the test (0.40-1.01 V/m) locations. Data obtained showed that DNA of samples exposed to rays from GSM antenna had various levels of distortions, estimated at 91.67%. Distortions occurred in 58.33% of the samples between 2-8 weeks of exposure while 33.33% of the samples were distorted between 8-24 weeks exposure. Approximately 8.33% of the samples did not show distortions in DNA while 33.33% of the samples had their DNA damaged twice, both at 8 and at 24 weeks of exposure. The study showed that radiation from the 900 MHz GSM antenna is potent enough to cause distortions to DNA of H. sabdariffa even within 2-8 weeks of exposure. DNA damage was also independent of the distance from the antenna. These observations would qualify emissions from GSM mast as environmental hazard to the existence of plant biodiversities and all life forms in general. These results will trigger efforts to prevent further erosion of plant genetic resources which have been threatening food security and also the risks posed to living organisms, thereby making our environment very safe for our existence while we still continue to enjoy the benefits of the GSM technology.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1125081Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 859
 R. M. Hussein, Y. Shahein, A. E. El-Hakim and H. M. Awad. Biochemical and Molecular Characterisation of three coloured types of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa). Journal of American Science, 6(11), 726-733, 2010
 T. Tseng, T. Kao, C. Chu, F. Chou, W. Lin and C. Wang. Induction of apoptosis by Hibiscus. Protocatechuic Acid in Human Leukemia Cells via Reduction of Retinoblastoma (RB) Phosphorylation and Bcl-2 Expression. Biochemical Pharmacology, 60, 307-315, 2000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-2952(00)00322-1
 I. P. Odigie, R. R. Ettarh and S. Adigun. Chronic administration of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa attenuates hypertension and reverses cardiac hypertrophy in 2K-1C hypertensive rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 86, 181-185, 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00078-3
 E. A. Navarro, J. Segura, M. Portoles and C. G. de Mateo. The Microwave Syndrom: A Preliminary Study in Spain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 22(2-3), 161-169. 2003.
 R. Santini, P. Santini, P. Le Ruz, J. M. Danze and M. Seigne. Survey study of people living in the vicinity of Cellular Base Stations. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 22(1), 41-49. 2003. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/JBC-120020353
 A. Goldsworthy. Effects of electrical and magnetic fields on plants and related topics. In: Volkov, A. G.(ed) Plant Electrophysiology-Theory and Methods. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg Pp. 247-267. 2006.
 E. Robert. Intrauterine effects of electromagnetic fields-(low frequency, mid-frequency RF and Microwave): Review of epidemiologic studies. Teratology, 59(4), 292-298. 1999.
 G. M. Shaw Adverse human reproductive outcomes and electromagnetic fields: a brief summary of the epidemiologic Literature. Bioelectromagnetics Supplementary, 5, 5-18. 2001.
 H. Bartsch, C. Bartsch, E. Seebald et al. Chronic exposure to a GSM-like signal (Mobile Phone) does not stimulate the development of DMBA-induced mammary tumour in rats, results of three consecutive studies. Radiation Research, 157 (2), 183 – 190. 2002.
 World Health Organization, WHO. Electromagnetic Fields. Available online at http://www.who.int/peh-emf/about/en. 2012. Retrieved on 12th July, 2014.
 A. Stewart, J. N. Rao, J. D. Middleton, J. Pearmain and T. Evans. Mobile Telecommunications and Health: Report of an Investigation into an alleged Cancer Cluster in Sandwell, West Midlands. Pespect Public Health, 132(6), 299 – 304. 2012.
 S. D. Smith, B. R. Mcleod and A. R. Liboff. Effects of SR tuning 60Hz magnetic fields on sprouting and early growth of Raphanus sativus. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergy, 32, 67-76. 1993.
 H. G. Stenz, B. Wohlwend and M. H. Weisenseel. Weak AC electric fields promote root growth and ER abundance of root cap cells. Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergy, 44, 261 –69. 1998.
 D. Roux, C. Faure, P. Bonnet, et al. A possible role for extra-cellular ATP in Plant responses to high frequency, low amplitude electromagnetic field. Plant Signalling and Behaviour, 3(6), 383 -385. 2008a.
 D. Roux, A. Vian, S. Girard, et al. High frequency (900 MHz) low amplitude (5Vm1) electromagnetic field: a genuine environmental stimulus that affects transcription, translation, Calcium and energy charge in Tomato. Planta, 227, 883-891 2008b.
 K. Haggerty. Adverse Influence of Radio Frequency Background on Trembling Aspen Seedlings: Preliminary Observations. International Journal of Forestry Research, 1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/836278. 2010.
 A. O. Oluwajobi, O. A. Falusi and N. A. Zubbair. Flower Bud Abscission Reduced in Hibiscus sabdariffa by Radiation from GSM Mast. Environment and Pollution; 4(1), doi:10.5539/ep.v4n1p53, 2015.
 A. O. Oluwajobi, O. A. Falusi and O. D. Oyedum. Estimation of the number of 900MHz GSM Antennae and the Field Intensities of their Ray Emissions in Minna Metropolis, Nigeria. International Journal of Applied Biological Research, Vol. 6(2):56 - 62 (2014)
 Y. Yao, C. H. Danna, F. J. Zemp et al. UV- C- irradiated Arabidopsis and Tobacco emit volatiles that Trigger Genomic Instability in Neighbouring Plants, The Plant Cell, 23(10), 3842-3852. 2011.
 G. J. Hyland, Non-thermal bioeffects induced by low intensity irradiation of living systems. Engineering Science and Education Journal, 7(6),261-269. 2003.