Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30835
Numerical Simulations of Electronic Cooling with In-Line and Staggered Pin Fin Heat Sinks

Authors: Yue-Tzu Yang, Hsiang-Wen Tang, Jian-Zhang Yin, Chao-Han Wu


Three-dimensional incompressible turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer of pin fin heat sinks using air as a cooling fluid are numerically studied in this study. Two different kinds of pin fins are compared in the thermal performance, including circular and square cross sections, both are in-line and staggered arrangements. The turbulent governing equations are solved using a control-volume- based finite-difference method. Subsequently, numerical computations are performed with the realizable k - ԑ turbulence for the parameters studied, the fin height H, fin diameter D, and Reynolds number (Re) in the range of 7 ≤ H ≤ 10, 0.75 ≤ D ≤ 2, 2000 ≤ Re ≤ 126000 respectively. The numerical results are validated with available experimental data in the literature and good agreement has been found. It indicates that circular pin fins are streamlined in comparing with the square pin fins, the pressure drop is small than that of square pin fins, and heat transfer is not as good as the square pin fins. The thermal performance of the staggered pin fins is better than that of in-line pin fins because the staggered arrangements produce large disturbance. Both in-line and staggered arrangements show the same behavior for thermal resistance, pressure drop, and the entropy generation.

Keywords: Simulations, Turbulent Flow, heat sinks, pin-fin

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 878


[1] G. Theoclitus, “Heat transfer and flow friction characteristics on nine pin-fin surfaces,” Trans. ASME, J. Heat Transfer, pp. 383–390, Nov. 1966.
[2] E. M. Sparrow, J. W. Ramsey, “Heat transfer and pressure drop for a staggered wall-attached array of cylinders with tip clearance,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 21, pp.1369–1377, 1978.
[3] O. N. Sara, S. Yapici, and M. Yilmaz, “Second law analysis of rectangular channels with square pin-fins,” Int. Commun. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 617–630, 2001.
[4] G. J. VanFossen, “Heat-transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins,” Trans. ASME, J. Heat Transfer, vol. 104, pp. 268–274, 1982.
[5] D. E. Mezger, C. D. Fan, and S. W. Haley, “Effects of pin shape and array orientation on heat transfer and pressure loss in pin arrays,” Trans. ASME, J. Heat Transfer, vol. 106, pp. 252–257, 1984.
[6] S. Y. Won, G. I. Mahmood, and P. M. Ligrani, “Spatially-resolved heat transfer and flow structure in a rectangular channel with pin fins,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol.47, pp. 1731–1743, 2004.
[7] F. E. Ames, L. A. Dvorak, and M. J. Morrow, “Turbulent augmentation of internal convection over pins in staggered-pin fin arrays,” Trans. ASME, Journal of Turbomachinery, vol. 127, pp. 183–190, 2005.
[8] M. E. Lyall, A. A. Thrift, K. A. Thole, and A. Kohli, “Heat transfer from low aspect ratio pin fins,” Trans. ASME, J. of Turbomachinery, vol. 133 (011001), 2011.
[9] Y. Kondo, H. Matsushima, and T. Komatsu, “Optimization of pin fin heat sinks for impingement cooling of electronic packages,” Trans. ASME, J. Electron. Packag., vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 240-246, 2000.
[10] M. B. Dogruoz, M. Urdaneta, and A. Ortega, “Experiments and modeling of the hydraulic resistance and heat transfer of in-line square pin fin heat sinks with top by-pass flow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 48, pp. 5058–5071, 2005.
[11] W. A. Khan, M. Yovanovich, and J. Culham, “Optimization of microchannel heat sinks using entropy generation minimization method,” In: Semiconductor thermal measurement and management symposium, 2006 IEEE twenty-second annual, pp.78–86.
[12] M. Shaeri, and M. Yaghoubi, “Thermal enhancement from heat sinks by using perforated fins,” Energy Convers Manag, vol. 50, pp.1264–1270, 2009.
[13] A. Kosar, and Y. Peles, “Micro scale pin-fin heat sinks-parametric performance evaluation study,” IEEE Transactions on components, packaging and manufacturing technology, vol. 30, pp. 855–865, 2007.
[14] T. J. John, B. Mathew, and H. Hegab, “Parametric study on the combined thermal and hydraulic performance of single phase micro pin-fin heat sinks Part I: Square and Circle Geometries,” Int. J. of Thermal Sciences, vol. 49, pp. 2177–2190, 2010.
[15] J. F. Tullius, T. K. Tullius, and Y. Bayazitoglu, “Optimization of microstructured fins in minichannels,” Proceedings of TMNN-2011/068, Antalya, Turkey, 2011.
[16] J. F. Tullius, T. K. Tullius, and Y. Bayazitoglu, “Optimization of short micro pin-fins in minichannels,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 55, pp. 3921–3932, 2012.
[17] Izci Türker, Koz Mustafa, and Ali Kosar, “The effect of micro pin-fin shape on thermal and hydraulic performance of micro pin-fin heat sinks,” Heat Transfer Engineering, vol. 36, pp. 1447–1457, 2015.
[18] M. L. Elsayed, O. Mesalhy, “Studying the performance of solid/perforated pin-fin heat sinks using entropy generation minimization,” Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 51, pp. 691–702, 2015.
[19] G. Xie, Y. Song, M. Asadi, and G. Lorenzini, “Optimization of pin-fins for a heat exchanger by entropy generation minimization and constructal law,” Trans. ASME, J. Heat Transfer, vol. 137, 061901, 2015.
[20] K. Horiuchi, A. Nishihara, and K. Sugimura, “Multi-objective optimization of water-cooled pin fin heat sinks,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 81, pp. 760-766, 2015.
[21] H. Jonsson and B. Moshfegf, “Modeling of the thermal and hydraulic performance of plate fin, strip fin, and pin fin heat sinks-influence of flow bypass,” Trans. on components and packaging technologies, vol. 24, pp. 142-149, 2001.