The Impact of Large-Scale Wind Energy Development on Islands’ Interconnection to the Mainland System
Greek islands’ interconnection (IC) with larger power systems, such as the mainland grid, is a crucial issue that has attracted a lot of interest; however, the recent economic recession that the country undergoes together with the highly capital intensive nature of this kind of projects have stalled or sifted the development of many of those on a more long-term basis. On the other hand, most of Greek islands are still heavily dependent on the lengthy and costly supply chain of oil imports whilst the majority of them exhibit excellent potential for wind energy (WE) applications. In this respect, the main purpose of the present work is to investigate −through a parametric study which varies both in wind farm (WF) and submarine IC capacities− the impact of large-scale WE development on the IC of the third in size island of Greece (Lesbos) with the mainland system. The energy and economic performance of the system is simulated over a 25-year evaluation period assuming two possible scenarios, i.e. S(a): without the contribution of the local Thermal Power Plant (TPP) and S(b): the TPP is maintained to ensure electrification of the island. The economic feasibility of the two options is investigated in terms of determining their Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) including also a sensitivity analysis on the worst/reference/best Cases. According to the results, Lesbos island IC presents considerable economic interest for covering part of island’s future electrification needs with WE having a vital role in this challenging venture.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1124911Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 696
 J. K. Kaldellis, “Maximum wind energy contribution in autonomous electrical grids based on thermal power stations,” Appl. Therm. Eng., Vol. 27, pp. 1565-1573, 2007.
 D. A. Katsaprakakis, D. G. Christakis, E. A. Zervos, D. Papantonis, and S. Voutsinas, “Pumped storage systems introduction in isolated power production systems,” Renew. Energ., Vol. 33, pp. 467-490, 2008.
 J. S. Anagnostopoulos, and D. E. Papantonis, “Simulation and size optimization of a pumped–storage power plant for the recovery of wind-farms rejected energy,” Renew. Energ., Vol. 33, 1685-1694, 2008.
 Hellenic Transmission System Operator (HTSO), “Study for Aegean islands interconnection with the mainland grid. Phase A”, 2010. Available at: http://www.desmie.gr. (Accessed in May 2015).
 Regulatory Authority of Energy (RAE), “Update of the strategic study for the interconnection of autonomous island networks to the mainland power system”, 2008. Available at: http://www.rae.gr. (Accessed in May 2015).
 P. N. Georgiou, G. Mavrotas, and D. Diakoulaki, “The effect of islands’ interconnection to the mainland system on the development of renewable energy sources in the Greek power sector,” Renew. Sust. Energ. Rev., Vol. 15, pp. 2607–2620, 2011.
 G. Xydis, “Comparison study between a Renewable Energy Supply System and a supergrid for achieving 100% from renewable energy sources in islands,” Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 46, pp. 198–210, 2013.
 Independent Power Transmission Operator (IPTO), “Cost/benefit study for Cyclades interconnection with the mainland grid”, 2013. Available at: http://www.admie.gr. (Accessed in September 2015).
 Hellenic Transmission System Operator (HTSO), “Development of the Electric Power System of Crete-Interconnection to the System of the Mainland,” 2011. Available at: http://www.desmie.gr. (Accessed in May 2015).
 M. Papadopoulos, N. Boulaxis, M. Tsili, and S. Papathanasiou, “Increased wind energy exploitation via interconnection of Aegean islands to the mainland grid,” in Proc. 19th International Conf. on Electricity Distribution, Vienna, 2007.
 J. K. Kaldellis, M. Kapsali, and K. A. Kavadias, “Energy balance analysis of wind-based pumped hydro storage systems in remote islands electrical networks,” Appl. Energ., Vol. 87, pp. 2427-2437, 2010.
 M. Kapsali, J. S. Anagnostopoulos, and J. K. Kaldellis, “Wind powered pumped-hydro storage systems for remote islands: A complete sensitivity analysis based on economic perspectives,” Appl. Energ., Vol. 99, pp. 430-444, 2012.
 M. Kapsali, and J. K. Kaldellis, “Combining hydro and variable wind power generation by means of pumped-storage under economically viable terms,” Appl. Energ., Vol. 87, pp. 3475-3485, 2010.
 ROKAS Renewables, “Aegean Link Project”, 2008. Available at: http:// www.pvaigaiou.gov.gr/. (Accessed in May 2015).
 T. Drobik, 2006. “High-voltage direct current transmission lines”, IEEE Conference Publishing.
 N. B. Negra, J. Todorovic, and T. Ackermann, “Loss evaluation of VAC and HVDC transmission solution for large offshore wind farms,” Electr. Pow. Syst. Res., Vol. 76, pp. 916-927, 2006.
 Regulatory Authority of Energy (RAE), “Amendment of the 85/2007 decision of RAE concerning the methodology of estimating maximum power absorption margins in the non-interconnected Greek islands”, (in Greek), 2008. Available at: http://www.rae.gr. (Accessed in May 2015).
 Regulatory Authority of Energy (RAE), “Amendment of the 96/2007 decision of RAE concerning the development of photovoltaic power stations in the islands, the allocation methodology of the available power in the islands and the identification of the “estimated’ allocation measure. Implementation of the new allocation measure to the island of Crete”, (in Greek), 2008. Available at: http://www.rae.gr. (Accessed in May 2015).
 J. K. Kaldellis, K. A. Kavadias, and D. Zafirakis, “Experimental validation of the optimum photovoltaic panels' tilt angle for remote consumers,” Renew. Energ., Vol. 46, pp. 179-191, 2012.
 International Energy Agency (IEA), “Energy technology perspectives 2010 – Scenarios and strategies to 2050”, 2010. Available at: http://www.iea.org/. (Accessed in May 2015).
 Hellenic Electricity Market Operator (LAGIE), “Feed in tariffs for RES applications”, 2015. Available at: http://www.lagie.gr/.(accessed in September 2015).
 Ministry of Environment, Energy & Climate Change (MEEC), “National Energy Plan: Roadmap to 2050”, 2012. Available at: http://www.ypeka.gr/.(accessed in May 2015).
 International Energy Agency (IEA), “World Energy Outlook”, 2012. Available at: http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/. (Accessed in May 2015).