Development of EREC IF Model to Increase Critical Thinking and Creativity Skills of Undergraduate Nursing Students
Critical thinking and creativity are prerequisite skills for working professionals in the 21st century. A survey conducted in 2014 at the Boromarajonani College of Nursing, Chon Buri, Thailand, revealed that these skills within students across all academic years was at a low to moderate level. An action research study was conducted to develop the EREC IF Model, a framework which includes the concepts of experience, reflection, engagement, culture and language, ICT, and flexibility and fun, to guide pedagogic activities for 75 sophomores of the undergraduate nursing science program at the college. The model was applied to all professional nursing courses. Prior to implementation, workshops were held to prepare lecturers and students. Both lecturers and students initially expressed their discomfort and pointed to the difficulties with the model. However, later they felt more comfortable, and by the end of the project they expressed their understanding and appreciation of the model. A survey conducted four and eight months after implementation found that the critical thinking and creativity skills of the sophomores were significantly higher than those recorded in the pretest. It could be concluded that the EREC IF model is efficient for fostering critical thinking and creativity skills in the undergraduate nursing science program. This model should be used for other levels of students.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1124731Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1076
 Z. CY. Chan, “Exploring creativity and critical thinking in traditional and innovative problem-based learning groups,” JCN, vol. 22, pp. 2298–2307, 2013.
 D. F. Halpern. Teaching critical thinking for transfer across domains: Disposition, skills, structure training, and metacognitive monitoring. Am. Psychol. vol. 53, No. 4, April, 1998. pp. 449-455.
 L.M. Marin & D. F. Halpern. Pedagogy for developing critical thinking in adolescents: Explicit instruction produces greatest gains. Thinking Skills and Creativity. Vol. 6, 2011, pp. 1–13.
 K. Turner, et al., Twenty First Century Skills of Nursing Students of Boromarajonani College of Nursing Chonburi. Nursing Journal of the Ministry of Public Health, vol. 25, no. 2, 2015. pp. 178-193.
 E. R. Lai, Critical thinking: A literature review. Pearson's Research Reports. 2011, Vol.6 pp. 40-1.
 T. Van Gelder. Teaching critical thinking: Some lessons from cognitive science. College teaching. vol. 53, no. 1, 2005, pp. 41-8.
 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Problem Solving for Tomorrow's World: First Measures of Cross-Curricular Competencies from PISA 2003 French, German: OECD; 2005.
 R. Paul, Critical thinking: What, why, and how. New Directions for Community Colleges. Vol. 77, 1992, pp. 3-24.
 B.A. Boxer, E.B. Goldfarb. Creative Solutions to Enhance Nursing Quality. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2011.
 S. Preechapraparnwong. Relationship between creativity and learning styles of educational and technology academy students. King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi. 2548.
 Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21). Beyond the three Rs: Voter attitudes toward 21st century skills Tuscon: Arizona; 2007 (May 10, 2015). Available from: www.21stcenturyskills.org/documents/P21_pollreport_singlepg.pdf.
 Trilling B, Fadel C. Learning and innovation skills. 21st century skills learning for life in our times. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2009.
 O. Silva, E. D. Alves, M. C. S. Rodrigues, Creativity in higher education of nursing – from the theoretical concepts to the pedagogical effects. Cultura de los Cuidados (Edición digital) Vol. 18, No. 40, 2014, pp. 27-35. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7184/cuid.2014.40.05.
 Z. C.Y. Chan, A systematic review of creative thinking/creativity in nursing education. Nurse Educ Today. Nov 2013, Vol. 33 no. 11, pp. 1382-1387. (6p).
 S. Bell, Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future. The Clearing House, 2010. 83(2): p. 39-43.
 Y. Doppelt, Implementation and assessment of project-based learning in a flexible environment. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 2003. 13(3): p. 255-272.
 World Health Organization. Transforming and scaling up health professionals’ education and training. World Health Organization Guidelines, World Health Organization, 2013.
 BK Bayer. What research suggests about teaching skills. In Costa & L. Arthur (Eds.), Developing minds: A resource book for teaching. Virginia: Alexandria, 2001.
 JF Smunty, Teaching young gifted children in the regular classroom. ERIC digest. ED (445422), 2000.
 MHMB Ibrahim. A Program Based on Task-Based Teaching Approach to Develop Creative Thinking Teaching Skills for Female Science Teachers in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Education. Vol. 136, No. 1, 2015, pp. 24-33.