Core Tourism Products and Destination Image: Case Study of Sabah, Malaysia
This paper empirically investigates the relationship between Sabah state core tourism products and its destination image. Through a descriptive design using a quantitative method with a self-reported and self-administered questionnaire, this research surveyed the individual international tourists who had visited Sabah and experienced the state’s core tourism products. The research findings clearly indicate that Sabah, one of the states in Malaysia has a lot of valuable resources in the eyes of the international tourists. Interestingly, it was found that Sabah’s core tourism products namely unique marine resources, various nature attractions and cultural diversities have undoubtedly contributed to the state’s tourism image. Good feedbacks and the promising insights from the international tourists’ point of view offer varying consequences, repercussion, and implication to the state government and the relevant authorities. Collaboration and cooperation between all responsible authorities are therefore crucial in strengthening the “total tourism experience” among the international tourists in this state.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1124501Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2768
 Akama, J. S., & Kieti, D. (2007). Tourism and socio-economic development in developing countries: a case study of Mombasa resort in Kenya. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15 (6), 735-748
 Albayrak, T., Caber, M., & Aksoy, S. (2013). The effect of environmental concern and skepticism on green purchase behavior. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 31 (1), 27-3.
 Alcaniz E. B. (2009). The functional-psychological continuum in the cognitive image of a destination: A confirmatory analysis. Tourism Management. 30, 715–723.
 Alhemoud, A., & Armstrong, E. (1996): Image of tourism attractions in Kuwait. Journal of Travel Research, 34, 76-80.
 Australian Economic Consultants. (2012). Measuring the economic input of coastal and marine tourism. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Industry, Science and Tourism.
 Baloglu, S. & Brinberg, D. (1997). Affective images of tourism destination. Journal of Travel Research, 35 (4), 11-15.
 Baloglu, S. & McCleary, K.W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, 35 (4), 11-15.
 Beerli, A. & Martin, J.D. (2004). Tourists’ characteristics and the perceived image of tourist destinations: a quantitative analysis – a case study of Lanzarote, Spain. Tourism Management, 25, 623-636.
 Brooks, S. (2005). Images of ‘Wild Africa: Nature tourism and the recreation of Hluhluwe game reserve, 1930-1945. Journal of Historical Geography 31(2): 220-240.
 Bruner., Edward, M., & Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, B. (1994). Maasai on the Lawn: Tourist Realism in East Africa. Cultural Anthropology 9, 435-470.
 Calderon, H., Gil, I., & Gallarza, M. G. (1998). In Academy and Profession (Ed), I international forum on the sciences, techniques and art applied to marketing (207-217). Madrid: Universidad Complutense.
 Chaney, R. (2008). Signing sounds of the south: Representing culture and performing heritage in Appalachian Virginia. Unpublished manuscript, Thesis (PhD), Columbia University.
 Chang, Hsiao-Ming., Lin, Jian-Syun., Chen, Chun-Wei., Chan, Chi-Hsuan. (2010). A study of residents recognized on costal sport tourism developing impact in Penghu. Leisure Study, 1(4), 19-43.
 Chen, J. N., Chen, Y. Y., Lee, M. R., & Huang, J. L. (2004). A developmental strategy of marine sports in Taiwan areas: An example of Penghu and Lingjiang Counties. Unpublished report, National Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.
 Chhabra, D., Healy, R., & Sills, E. (2003). Staged authenticity and heritage tourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 30(3), 702-719.
 Chon, K. S. (1990). The role of destination image in tourism: A review and discussion. Revue du Tourisme. 2, 2 – 9.
 Hunt, John D. "Image as a factor in tourism development." Journal of travel research 13.3 (1975): 1-7.
 Crompton, J.L. (1979). An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon that image. Journal of Travel Research. 17 (4), 18-23.
 Dzingirai, V. (2003). The New Scramble for the African countryside. Development Southern Africa.
 Echtner, C.M., & Ritchie, J.R. (1991). The measurement of tourism destination image. Unpublished manuscricpt, University of Calgary, Calgary.
 Echtner., Charlotte, M., & Ritchie, J.R.B. (2003). The Meaning and Measurement of Destination Image. The Journal of Tourism Studies, 14 (1), 37-48.
 Fakeye, P. C., & Crompton, J. L. (1991). Image differences between prospective, first-time and repeat visitors to Lower Rio Grande Valley. Journal of Travel Research, 30 (2), 10–36.
 Framke, W. (2002). The destination as a concept: a discussion of business related perspective versus the social culture approach in tourism theory. Scandinavian Annals of Tourism Research, 31(2), 920-108.
 Fyall, A., & Garrod, B. (1998). Heritage tourism: at what price? Managing Leisure, 3(4), 213 228.
 Galdini, R. (2007). Tourism and the city: opportunity for regeneration. Unpublished manuscript, MPRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive.
 Gallarza, M., Gil, J., & Calderon, H. (2002). Destination image. Towards a conceptual framework. Annals of Tourism Research. 29 (1), 56 – 78.
 Gartner W.C. (1993). Image formation process. Journal Travel Tour, 2(2/3), 191-215.
 Gartner, W.C. (1989). Tourism image: Attribute measurement of state tourism products using Multidimensional scaling techniques. Journal of Travel Research, 28 (2), 16-20.
 Govers, R. & Go, F. (2005). Projected destination online: Website content analysis of picture and text. Information Technology and Tourism, 7 (2), 1-18.
 Gunn, C. (1988). Vacations capes: designing tourist regions. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
 Hall, C. M., & Weiler, B. (1992). Special Interest Tourism. London: Belhaven Press.
 Hall, C.M., & Boyd, S. (2005). Nature Based Tourism in Peripheral Areas. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
 Herreman, Y. (2006). The role of museums today: Tourism and cultural heritage. In B.T. Hoffman (Ed.) Art and Cultural Heritage. New York: Cambridge University Press.
 Holden, A., & Sparrowhawk, J. (2002). Understanding the motivations of ecotourists: the case of trekkers, in Annapurna, Nepal. International Journal of Tourism Research, 4(6), 435-446.
 Hu, Y. Z., & Ritchie, J.R.B. (1993). Measuring destination attractiveness: a contextual approach. Journal of Travel Research, 35 (4), 42-49.
 Hvenegaard, G.T. (2002). Using tourist typologies for ecotourism research, Journal of Ecotourism, 1 (1), 7-18.
 Ibrahim, E.E., & Gill, J. (2005). A positioning strategy for a tourist destination based on analysis of customers' perceptions and satisfactions. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 23 (2), 172 – 188.
 Jensen, S.S. (2007), The roles of culture and creativity within urban development strategies: Scandinavian cities. Centre for Strategic Urban Research, CSB, No. 8.
 Keller, K.L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring and managing customer-based brand equity, Journal of Marketing, 57, 1-22.
 Khaled, Y., Sebastian, E., & Elmar, G.P. (2013). A Decompilation Framework for Static Analysis of Binaries (Ed.), Proc. of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Malicious and Unwanted Software. Fajardo, Puerto Rico, USA.
 Komppula, R. (2001) New Product Development in Tourism Companies – Case Studies on Nature Based Activity Operators. Paper presented at the 10th Nordic Conference in Tourism Research, 19-20 November 2001, Vaasa, Finland.
 Kuo, H. L. (2007). A study of participants' motivation, anticipation and satisfaction on scuba diving of sport tourism. Unpublished manuscript, Master's thesis, National Taiwan College of Physical Education, Taichung City.
 Lee, M.J., & Chen, Y.C. (2010). Relationships among experiential value, travel satisfaction and revisiting willingness on tourists who participated in Penghu Island tourism-A case of Ji-bai and Cei-Mei Islands. Journal of Leisure and Recreation Industry Management, 3(1), 1-18.
 Leisen, B. (2001). Image segmentation: the case of a tourism destination. Journal of Service Marketing. 15(1), 49–66.
 Liu, H. H. & Hsu, Y. P. (2007). Promoting Ocean-based Sport Tourism from a Market Failure Perspective. National Sports Quarterly, 104, 38-43.
 Liu, T. T. (2004). A study of the participation motivation, satisfaction, constraints and behaviour of adventure tourism. Unpublished manuscript, Master's thesis, National College of Physical Education and Sports, Taoyuan County.
 Makladin, N.S. (2007). Klias peat swamp forest reserves: it potential as nature tourism site from the perspective of local communities. Malaysia: University Malaysia Sabah.
 McCann, J. (2002). The cultural politics of local economic development: meaning-making, place-making and the urban policy process. Geoforum, 33, 385-98.
 Medlik, S., & Middleton, V. T. C. (1973). Product formulation in tourism and marketing. Berne: AIEST.
 Mehmetoglu, M. (2005). A case study of nature-based tourists: specialists versus generalists. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 11 (4), 357-369.
 Meng, F., Tepanon, Y., Uysal, M. (2006). Measuring tourist satisfaction by attribute and motivation: the case of a nature-based resort. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 14 (1), 41-56.
 Miles, S., & Paddison, R. (2005). The rise and rise of culture-led urban regeneration. Urban Studies, 42 (5/6), 833-9.
 Ministry of Tourism Malaysia. (2013, April 12-14). Malaysia country report. Presented at UNWTO 25th CAP-CSA and UNWTO Conference On Sustainable Tourism Development.
 Moore, S.A., Smith, A., & Newsome, D. (2003). Environmental performance reporting for natural area tourism: Contributions by visitor impact management frameworks and their indicators. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 11(4), 348-375.
 Murphy, P., Pritchard, M. P., & Smith, B. (2000). The destination products and it impact on traveler perception. Tourism Management, 21(1), 43-52.
 Norton, A. (1996). Experiencing nature: The reproduction of environment discourse through safari tourism in East Africa. Geoforum, 27 (3), 355-375.
 O’Leary, S., & Deegan, J. (2005). Ireland’s image as a tourism destination in France: attribute importance and performance. Journal of Travel Research. 43, 247.
 Orams, M. (1999). Marine Tourism: Development, Impact and Management. New York: Routledge.
 Page, S.J., & Connell, J. (2006). Tourism: A Modern Synthesis. 2nd ed. London: Thomson Learning.
 Pechlaner, H. (2001). The future of the Alps as a destination. The challenges of a cross-regional collaboration Alpine. In destination management: in search of a possible solution. Giappichelli: Torino.
 Pot, C. (2005). An evaluation of Spain’s marketing campaign ‘smile you are in Spain’, through an image analysis in the Dutch market. Spain: Ma European Tourism Management Bournemouth University.
 Raadik, J., Cottrell, S.P., Fredman, P., Ritter, P., & Newman, P. (2010). Understanding recreational experience preferences: application at Fulufjallet National Park, Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 10 (3), 231-247.
 Rial, A., Varela, J. & Garcia. A. (2008). Methodological application to the study of brand image of a tourist destination, steps and heritage tourism magazine. Cultural, 6 (1), 1-10.
 Rial, A., Varela, J., Brana, T., & Levy, J.P. (2000). The value of the brand from its relationship with Elconsumidor. Psicothema, 12 (2), 247-254.
 Richards, G. (1996). Introduction: cultural tourism in Europe. In G. Richards (Ed.) Cultural Tourism in Europe, 8-20. Wallingford: CAB International.
 Richards, G. (2001). Cultural Attractions and European Tourism. Wallingford: CAB International.
 Sabah Development Corridor, SDC. (2012). Sabah development corridor blueprint. Institute for Development Studies (Sabah).
 Sabah Tourism Board. (2011). Visitor arrivals & international visitor profiles statistics. Sabah Tourism Board Official Website.
 Seaton, A.V., & Bennett, M. M. (1996): Marketing tourism products; concepts, issues, cases. London: Thompson Business Press.
 Smith, S. L. (1994) The Tourism Product. Annals of Tourism Research, 21(3), 582-595.
 Som, A.P.M., Marzuki, A., Yousefi M., & Khalifeh, A.N.A. (2012). Factors influencing visitors’ revisit behavioral intentions: a case study of Sabah, Malaysia. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4(4).
 Tapachai, N., & Waryszak, R. (2000). An examination of the role of beneficial image in tourist destination selection. Journal of Travel Research. 39, 37-44.
 Thomas, R. (2007). Tourism partnerships and small firms: power, participation and partition. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 8 (1), pp. 37-43.
 Travel Industry Association (2003). The Historic/Cultural Traveler. Washington, DC: Travel Industry Association.
 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO. (2008). Definition of cultural heritage (On-line) Available http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php
 Valentine, P. (1992). ‘‘Nature-based tourism’’, Special Interest Tourism. London: Belhaven Press.
 Weaver, D. (2005). Comprehensive and minimalist dimensions of ecotourism. Annals of Tourism Research, 32, 439-455.
 Weaver, D.B. and Lawton, L.J. (2007) Twenty years on: the state of contemporary ecotourism research. Tourism Management, 28, 1168–1179.
 Weaver, D.B., Faulkner, B., & Lawton, L. (2001). Nature-Based Tourism in Australia and Beyond: A Preliminary Investigation. Gold Coast, Queensland: Cooperative Research Centre for Sustainable Tourism, Griffith University.
 Wilson, A. (1992). The Culture of Nature. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 23.
 Wood, M. (2002). Ecotourism: Principles, Practices & Policies for Sustainability. Burlington, VT: UNEP.
 Zhou, W. (2003). The Resources Plan and Sustainable Development of Tourism. National Sports Quarterly, 138, 5.