Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30069
Investigating Prostaglandin E2 and Intracellular Oxidative Stress Levels in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophages upon Treatment with Strobilanthes crispus
Abstract:Background: Uncontrolled inflammation may cause serious inflammatory diseases if left untreated. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) is commonly used to inhibit pro-inflammatory enzymes, thus, reduce inflammation. However, long term administration of NSAIDs leads to various complications. Medicinal plants are getting more attention as it is believed to be more compatible with human body. One of them is a flavonoid-containing medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus which has been traditionally claimed to possess anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Nevertheless, its anti-inflammatory activities are yet to be scientifically documented. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the anti-inflammatory activity of S. crispus by investigating its effects on intracellular oxidative stress and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this study, the Maximum Non-toxic Dose (MNTD) of methanol extract of both leaves and stems of S. crispus was first determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenytetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of S. crispus extracts at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD) on intracellular ROS as well as PGE2 levels in 1.0 µg/mL LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were then be measured using DCFH-DA and a competitive enzyme immunoassay kit, respectively. Results: The MNTD of leaf extract was determined as 700µg/mL while for stem was as low as 1.4µg/mL. When LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were subjected to the MNTD of S. crispus leaf extract, both intracellular ROS and PGE2 levels were significantly reduced. In contrast, stem extract at both MNTD and ½MNTD did not significantly reduce the PGE2 level, but significantly increased the intracellular ROS level. Conclusion: The methanol leaf extract of S. crispus may possess anti-inflammatory properties as it is able to significantly reduce the intracellular ROS and PGE2 levels of LPS-stimulated cells. Nevertheless, further studies such as investigating the interleukin, nitric oxide and cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels has to be conducted to further confirm the anti-inflammatory properties of S. crispus.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1124083Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1051
 M.H. Pan, Y.S. Chiou, M.L. Tsai, and C.T. Ho, “Anti-inflammatory activity of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs,” Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, vol. 1, pp. 8-24, Oct 2011.
 W.J. Yoon, Y.M. Ham, K.N. Kim, S.Y. Park, N.H. Lee, C.G. Hyun, and W.J. Lee, “Anti-inflammatory activity of brown alga Dictyota dichotoma in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells,” Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, vol. 3, pp. 001–008, Jan 2009.
 H.T. Sorensen, L. Mellemkjaer, W.J. Blot, G.L. Nielsen, F.H. Steffensen, J.K. McLaughlin JK, and J.H. Olsen, “Risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding associated with use of low-dose aspirin,” American Journal of Gastroenterology vol. 95, pp 2218-2224, Sept 2000.
 Y.S. Chi, B.S. Cheon, and H.P. Kim, “Effect of wogonin, a plant flavone from Scutellaria radix, on the suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase in lipopolysaccharide-treated RAW 264.7 cells;” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 61, pp. 1195-1203, May 2001.
 A.S. Ravipati, L. Zhang, S.R. Koyyalamudi, S.C. Jeong, N. Reddy, J. Bartlett, P.T. Smith, K. Shanmugam, G. Munch, M.J. Wu, M. Satyanarayanan, and B. Vysetti, “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected Chinese medicinal plants and their relation with antioxidant content,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 22, pp. 173, Oct 2012.
 L. Zhang, A.S. Ravipati, S.R. Koyyalamudi, S.C. Jeong, N. Reddy, P.T. Smith, J. Bartlett, K. Shanmugam, G. Munch, and M.J. Wu, “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants containing phenolic and flavonoid compounds,”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 14, pp. 12361-7, Dec 2011.
 H.Z. Chong, A. Rahmat, S.K. Yeap, A. Md Akim, N.B. Alitheen, F. Othman, and C.L.G. Ee, “In vitro cytotoxicity of Strobilanthes crispus ethanol extract on hormone dependent human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cell,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 4, pp. 12:35, April 2012.
 N.S. Muslim, K.W. Ng, A. Itam, Z.D. Nassar, Z. Ismail, and A.M.S. Abdul Majid, “Evaluation of cytotoxic, anti-angiogenic and antioxidant properties of standardized extracts of Strobilanthes crispus leaves,” International Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 6, pp. 591-599, July 2010.
 N.S. Yaacob, N. Hamzah, N.N. Nik Mohamed Kamal, S.A. Zainal Abidin, C.S. Lai, V. Navaratnam, and M.N. Norazmi, “Anticancer activity of a sub-fraction of dichloromethane extract of Strobilanthes crispus on human breast and prostate cancer cells in vitro,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 10, pp. 10-42. Aug 2010.
 O.K. Kim, A. Murakami, Y. Nakamura, and H. Ohigashi, “Screening of edible Japanese plants for nitric oxide generation inhibitory activities in RAW 264.7 cells,” Cancer Letters, vol. 13, pp. 199-207, Mar 1998.
 T. McKenna. “Oxidative stress on mammalian cell cultures during recombinant protein expression,” Institute of Technology, Linkoping University, Sweden, 2009.
 E. Ackerstaff, B. Gimi, D. Artemov, and Z.M. Bhujwalla, “Anti-inflammatory agent indomethacin reduces invasion and alters metabolism in a human breast cancer cell line,” Neoplasia vol. 9, pp. 222-235, Mar 2007.
 P. Maity, S. Bindu, S. Dey, M. Goyal, A. Alam, C. Pal, K.Mitra, and U. Bondyopadhyay, “Indomethacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, develops gastropathy by inducing reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathology and associated apoptosis in gastric mucosa: a novel role of mitochondrial aconitase oxidation,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 284, pp.3058-3068, Jan 2009.
 M.F. Abu Bakar A.H. The, A. Rahmat, F. Othman, N. Hashim, and S. Fakurazi, “Antiproliferative properties and antioxidant activity of various types of Strobilanthes crispus Tea,” International Journal of Cancer Research, vol. 2, pp.152-158, 2006.
 C. Brunetti, M. Ferdinando, A. Fini, S. Pollastri, and M. Tattini, “Flavonoids as antioxidants and developmental regulators: relative significance in plants and humans,” International Journal of Molecular Science, vol. 14, pp. 3540-3555, Feb 2013.
 C.F. Skibola, and M.T. Smith, “Potential health impacts of excessive flavonoid intake,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 29, pp. 375-383, Aug 2000.
 M. Mueller, S. Hobiger, and A. Jungbauer, “Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from fruits, herbs and spice,” Food Chemistry, vol. 122, pp. 987-996, Oct 2010.
 Kalinski P, “Regulation of immune responses by prostaglandin E2,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 188, pp. 21-28, Jan 2012.