Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31824
Factors Influencing Household Expenditure Patterns on Cereal Grains in Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Authors: E. A. Ojoko, G. B. Umbugadu


This study aims at describing the expenditure pattern of households on millet, maize and sorghum across income groups in Nasarawa State. A multi-stage sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 316 respondents for the study. The Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) model was adopted in this study. Results from the study shows that the average household size was five persons with dependency ratio of 52 %, which plays an important role on the household’s expenditure pattern by increasing the household budget share. On the average 82 % were male headed households with an average age of 49 years and 13 years of formal education. Results on expenditure share show that maize has the highest expenditure share of 38 % across the three income groups and that most of the price effects are significantly different from zero at 5 % significant level. This shows that the low price of maize increased its demand as compared to other cereals. Household size and age of household members are major factors affecting the demand for cereals in the study. This agrees with the fact that increased household population (size) will bring about increase consumption. The results on factors influencing preferences for cereal grains reveals that cooking quality and appearance (65.7 %) were the most important factors affecting the demand for maize in the study area. This study recommends that cereal crop production should be prioritized in government policies and farming activities that help to boost food security and alleviate poverty should be subsidized.

Keywords: Expenditure pattern, AIDS model, budget share, price cereal grains and consumption.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2068


[1] FAO (1990): Patterns of Urban Food Consumption in Developing Countries. A Perspective from the 1980’s. Food and Nutrition Division, FAO, Rome, Italy.
[2] USDA (2008): Urban Households: Evidence from Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Food Security in the United States: Measuring Household Food Security". Retrieved 24 July, 2014.
[3] National Bureau of Statistics (2012): Consumption Pattern in Nigeria 2009/10. Preliminary report for March, 2012.
[4] Satterthwaite, D., McGranahan G. and Tacoli C. (2010): Urbanization and its Implications for Food and Farming Phil. Trans. R. Soc B 2010 365, doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0136. Working paper, Department of Economics, University of Texas at Austin, USA.
[5] Scott, G. J., Rosegrant, M. W. and Ringler, C. (2000): Roots and Tubers for the 21st Century.
[6] Tsegai, W. D and Kormawa, M. P. (2009): The Determinant of Urban Households’ Demand for Cassava and Cassava Products. European Journal of Development Research 21(3), 435 – 447.
[7] Adewuyi, S.A., T. E. Mafimisebi and P.O Awe (2007): Food Expenditure patterns among urban households in Ibadan, Southwest local government area, Oyo State. Asset Series C, 2(1): 30-37.
[8] Akerele, E.O. and Ambali, O. I. (2012): Consumption and Saving pattern among rural farming households in Abeokuta North local government area of Ogun State. Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 4, ISSN 2277-0062, pp 53-62
[9] NPC (National Population Commission) (2006). 2006 Census Report.
[10] Nasarawa State Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2014.
[11] Deaton, A. S. and Muellbauer, J. (1980): An Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS). The American Economic Review 7(33): 12 – 26.
[12] Sadoulet, E. and Janvry, A. (2009): The Impact of Rising Food Prices on Household Welfare in India. University of California at Berkeley., Retrieved September 16, 2013.
[13] Gael R. (2005): Impact of Socio-economics and Demographic factors on food away from home consumption: Number of meals and by types of facilities. Journal of Restaurant and Service Marketing. Vol. 1, Nos. 4, pp 45-69.
[14] Sdrali, D. (2006): Effects of Socio Demographic and Economic Factors on Food Expenditure in A Prefecture of Greece; PhD Dissertation, Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University of Athens, Greece.
[15] Hopkins, J., C. Levin and L. Haddad, (1994): Women’s Income and Household Expenditure. Retrieved May 16, 2014.
[16] Hoddinott, J. and Haddad, L. (1995): Does Female Income Share Influence Household Expenditures? Evidence from Cote d’Ivoire.Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 57 (1).
[17] Jerome, M. E and Perreault, D. W. Jr. (1991): Essentials of Marketing, 5th Edition; IRWIN publishers, pp. 128-144.
[18] Blisard, N. (2001): Income and Food Expenditures Decomposed by Cohort, Age, and Time effect: Electronic report from the Economic Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Technical Bulletin No. 1896, August 2001.
[19] Bobby, B. (2004): Household Education Level’s Relationship to Intra-household Consumption. Central European Agriculture, 8(3), 397-406.
[20] Theil, H. (1995): Theory and measurement of consumer demand, Vol. I. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company. Pp 212.
[21] Evans, D. (1998): Marketing. Oxford University Press. pp 13-41.